glossary

# A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

This cancer definition glossary is adapted from the National Cancer Institute online glossary.


S

S-1
A drug that is being studied for its ability to enhance the effectiveness of fluorouracil and prevent gastrointestinal side effects caused by fluorouracil. It belongs to the family of drugs called antimetabolites.

S-phase fraction
A measure of the percentage of cells in a tumor that are in the phase of the cell cycle during which DNA is synthesized. The S-phase fraction may be used with the proliferative index to give a more complete understanding of how fast a tumor is growing.

S100 calcium binding protein A8 (… KAL-see-um … PROH-teen …)
A protein that is made by many different types of cells and is involved in processes that take place both inside and outside of the cell. It is made in larger amounts in inflammatory diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, and in some types of cancer. It is being studied as a biomarker for breast cancer. Also called calgranulin A.

S100 calcium binding protein A9 (… KAL-see-um … PROH-teen …)
A protein that is made by many different types of cells and is involved in processes that take place both inside and outside of the cell. It is made in larger amounts in inflammatory diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, and in some types of cancer. It is being studied as a biomarker for breast cancer. Also called calgranulin B.

sacrum (SAY-krum)
The large, triangle-shaped bone in the lower spine that forms part of the pelvis. It is made of 5 fused bones of the spine.

safingol (SA-fin-gol)
A substance that is being studied in the treatment of cancer. It belongs to the family of drugs called protein kinase inhibitors. Also called L-threo-dihydrosphingosine.

SAHA
Suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid. A drug that is used to treat cutaneous T-cell lymphoma that does not get better, gets worse, or comes back during or after treatment with other drugs. It is also being studied in the treatment of other types of cancer. SAHA belongs to the family of drugs called histone deacetylase inhibitors. Also called suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid, vorinostat, and Zolinza.

saline
A solution of salt and water.

saliva (suh-LIE-vuh)
The watery fluid in the mouth made by the salivary glands. Saliva moistens food to help digestion and it helps protect the mouth against infections.

salivary gland (SA-lih-VAYR-ee gland)
A gland in the mouth that produces saliva.

salivary gland cancer (SA-lih-VAYR-ee gland KAN-ser)
A rare cancer that forms in tissues of a salivary gland (gland in the mouth that makes saliva). Most salivary gland cancers occur in older people.

salpingo-oophorectomy (sal-PIN-goh-oh-oh-foh-REK-toh-mee)
Surgical removal of the fallopian tubes and ovaries.

salvage therapy (SAL-vij THAYR-uh-pee)
Treatment that is given after the cancer has not responded to other treatments.

samarium 153 (suh-MAYR-ee-um)
A radioactive substance used in cancer therapy.

samarium Sm 153 lexidronam pentasodium (suh-MAYR-ee-um…LEK-sih-DROH-nam PEN-tuh-SOH-dee-um)
A drug used to treat pain caused by bone cancer and other cancers that have spread to the bones. Samarium Sm 153 lexidronam pentasodium is a type of radiopharmaceutical. Also called Quadramet.

saponin
A substance found in soybeans and many other plants. Saponins may help lower cholesterol and may have anticancer effects.

saquinavir mesylate
A drug that belongs to the family of drugs called protease inhibitors. It interferes with the ability of a virus to make copies of itself.

sarCNU
A substance that is being studied in the treatment of cancer. It belongs to the family of drugs called alkylating agents. Also called sarcosinamide nitrosourea.

sarcoid
An inflammatory disease marked by the formation of granulomas (small nodules of immune cells) in the lungs, lymph nodes, and other organs. Sarcoid may be acute and go away by itself, or it may be chronic and progressive. Also called sarcoidosis.

sarcoidosis
An inflammatory disease marked by the formation of granulomas (small nodules of immune cells) in the lungs, lymph nodes, and other organs. Sarcoidosis may be acute and go away by itself, or it may be chronic and progressive. Also called sarcoid.

sarcoma
A cancer of the bone, cartilage, fat, muscle, blood vessels, or other connective or supportive tissue.

sarcomatoid carcinoma (sar-KOH-muh-toyd kar-sih-NOH-muh)
A type of cancer that begins in the skin or in tissues that line or cover internal organs and that contains long spindle-shaped cells. Also called spindle cell cancer.

sarcosinamide nitrosourea
A substance that is being studied as a treatment for cancer. It belongs to the family of drugs called alkylating agents. Also called sarCNU.

sargramostim
A substance that helps make more white blood cells, especially granulocytes, macrophages, and cells that become platelets. It is a cytokine that is a type of hematopoietic (blood-forming) agent. Also called granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor and GM-CSF.

satraplatin
A substance that is being studied in the treatment of cancer. It belongs to the family of drugs called platinum analogs. Also called BMS-182751 and JM 216.

saturated fat (SA-chu-RAY-ted…)
A type of fat with certain chemical properties that is usually solid at room temperature. Most saturated fats come from animal food products, but some plant oils, such as palm and coconut oil, also contain high levels. Eating saturated fat increases the level of cholesterol in the blood and the risk of heart disease.

saw palmetto (...pawl-MEH-toh)
A shrub that is a member of the palm tree family. An extract made from the berries of this shrub has been studied in the treatment of certain urinary and prostate disorders. The scientific name is Serenoa repens.

SB-715992
A substance being studied in the treatment of cancer. SB-715992 blocks a protein that tumor cells need to divide. It is a type of mitotic inhibitor. Also called ispinesib.

SC-70935
A substance being studied for its ability to stimulate the production of blood cells during chemotherapy. It is a type of colony-stimulating factor. Also called leridistim.

scalpel (SKAL-pul)
A small, thin knife used for surgery.

scan
A picture of structures inside the body. Scans often used in diagnosing, staging, and monitoring disease include liver scans, bone scans, and computed tomography (CT) or computerized axial tomography (CAT) scans and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans. In liver scanning and bone scanning, radioactive substances that are injected into the bloodstream collect in these organs. A scanner that detects the radiation is used to create pictures. In CT scanning, an x-ray machine linked to a computer is used to produce detailed pictures of organs inside the body. MRI scans use a large magnet connected to a computer to create pictures of areas inside the body.

scanner
In medicine, an instrument that takes pictures of the inside of the body.

SCF
Stem cell factor. A drug being studied for its ability to increase the number of stem cells in the blood. It is a type of hematopoietic cell growth factor. Also called stem cell factor, ancestim, and Stemgen.

SCH 54031
A drug used to treat hepatitis C infections. It is also being studied in the treatment and prevention of cancer. SCH 54031 is a cytokine that is modified in the laboratory. It is a type of biological response modifier. Also called PEG-Intron and PEG-interferon alfa-2b.

SCH 66336
An anticancer drug that belongs to the family of drugs called enzyme inhibitors. Also called lonafarnib.

SCH-58500
A substance that has been studied in the treatment of some types of cancer. SCH-58500 is a weakened adenovirus that carries the p53 gene into tumor cells, causing them to die. It is a type of gene therapy. Also called recombinant adenovirus-p53, ACN53, and rAd/p53.

schedule (SKEH-jool)
In clinical trials, the step-by-step plan for how patients are to be treated; for example, the drug or type of radiation therapy that is to be given, the method by which it is to be given, the amount of time between courses, and the total length of treatment.

Schiller test (SHIL-er)
A test in which iodine is applied to the cervix. The iodine colors healthy cells brown; abnormal cells remain unstained, usually appearing white or yellow.

schizophrenia (SKIT-soh-FREE-nee-uh)
A group of severe mental disorders in which a person has trouble telling the difference between real and unreal experiences, thinking logically, having normal emotional responses to others, and behaving normally in social situations. Symptoms include seeing, hearing, feeling things that are not there, having false ideas about what is taking place or who one is, nonsense speech, unusual behavior, lack of emotion, and social withdrawal.

Schwann cell
A type of glial cell of the peripheral nervous system that helps separate and insulate nerve cells.

schwannoma (shwah-NO-ma)
A tumor of the peripheral nervous system that arises in the nerve sheath (protective covering). It is almost always benign, but rare malignant schwannomas have been reported.

scientist
A person who has studied science, especially one who is active in a particular field of investigation.

scintimammography (SIN-tih-ma-MAH-gruh-fee)
A type of breast imaging test that is used to detect cancer cells in the breasts of some women who have had abnormal mammograms, or who have dense breast tissue, but is not used for screening or in place of a mammogram. In this test, a woman receives an injection of a small amount of a radioactive substance called technetium 99, which is taken up by cancer cells, and a gamma camera is used to take pictures of the breasts. Also called Miraluma test and sestamibi breast imaging.

sclera (SKLER-uh)
The white layer of the eye that covers most of the outside of the eyeball.

scleroderma
A chronic disorder marked by hardening and thickening of the skin. Scleroderma can be localized or it can affect the entire body (systemic).

screening
Checking for disease when there are no symptoms.

screening mammogram
X-rays of the breasts taken to check for breast cancer in the absence of signs or symptoms.

scrotum (SKRO-tum)
In males, the external sac that contains the testicles.

Scutellaria barbata
An herb that belongs to a group of herbs named the Scutellaria species or scullcap. Both the root and the above-ground part have been used to make herbal medicines. The root has been used in traditional Chinese medicine to treat lung cancer and other medical problems.

SDX-102
A substance that is being studied in the treatment of cancer. It belongs to the family of drugs called antimetabolites. Also called alanosine.

SDX-105
A substance that is being studied in the treatment of cancer. It belongs to the family of drugs called alkylating agents. Also called bendamustine.

sebum (SEE-bum)
An oily substance produced by certain glands in the skin.

second primary cancer
Refers to a new primary cancer in a person with a history of cancer.

second-line therapy (...THAYR-uh-pee)
Treatment that is given when initial treatment (first-line therapy) doesn’t work, or stops working.

second-look surgery
Surgery performed after primary treatment to determine whether tumor cells remain.

secondary cancer
A term that is used to describe either a new primary cancer or cancer that has spread from the place in which it started to other parts of the body.

secondhand smoke
Smoke that comes from the burning of a tobacco product and smoke that is exhaled by smokers. Inhaling secondhand smoke is called involuntary or passive smoking. Also called environmental tobacco smoke and ETS.

sedative (SEH-duh-tiv)
A drug used to calm a person down, relieve anxiety, or help a person sleep.

sedimentation rate
The distance red blood cells travel in one hour in a sample of blood as they settle to the bottom of a test tube. The sedimentation rate is increased in inflammation, infection, cancer, rheumatic diseases, and diseases of the blood and bone marrow. Also called erythrocyte sedimentation rate and ESR.

sedoxantrone trihydrochloride (seh-DOX-an-trone try-HY-droh-KLOR-ide)
A substance being studied as a treatment for cancer. It is a type of DNA-intercalating compound. Also called CI-958.

segmental cystectomy (seg-MEN-tul sis-TEK-toh-mee)
Surgery to remove part of the bladder (the organ that holds urine). Also called partial cystectomy.

segmental mastectomy (seg-MEN-tul ma-STEK-toh-mee)
The removal of cancer as well as some of the breast tissue around the tumor and the lining over the chest muscles below the tumor. Usually some of the lymph nodes under the arm are also taken out. Also called partial mastectomy.

segmental resection (seg-MEN-tul ree-SEK-shun)
A surgical procedure to remove part of an organ or gland. It may also be used to remove a tumor and normal tissue around it. In lung cancer surgery, segmental resection refers to removing a section of a lobe of the lung. Also called segmentectomy.

segmentectomy (seg-men-TEK-toh-mee)
A surgical procedure to remove part of an organ or gland. It may also be used to remove a tumor and normal tissue around it. In lung cancer surgery, segmentectomy refers to removing a section of a lobe of the lung. Also called segmental resection.

seizure (SEE-zhur)
Convulsion; a sudden, involuntary movement of the muscles.

selection bias
An error in choosing the individuals or groups to take part in a study. Ideally, the subjects in a study should be very similar to one another and to the larger population from which they are drawn (for example, all individuals with the same disease or condition). If there are important differences, the results of the study may not be valid.

selective estrogen receptor modulator (sel-EK-tiv ES-truh-jin rih-SEP-ter MOD-yew-lay-tor)
SERM. A drug that acts like estrogen on some tissues but blocks the effect of estrogen on other tissues. Tamoxifen and raloxifene are SERMs. Also called SERM.

selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor
SSRI. A type of drug that is used to treat depression. SSRIs slow the process by which serotonin (a substance that nerves use to send messages to one another) is reused by nerve cells that make it. This increases the amount of serotonin available for stimulating other nerves. Also called SSRI.

selenium (suh-LEE-nee-um)
A mineral that is needed by the body to stay healthy. It is being studied in the prevention and treatment of some types of cancer. Selenium is a type of antioxidant.

self-esteem
A feeling of self-worth, self-confidence, and self-respect.

sella turcica
A depression of the bone at the base of the skull where the pituitary gland is located.

semaxanib (seh-MAX-uh-nib)
A substance that has been studied in the treatment of cancer. It belongs to the families of drugs called angiogenesis inhibitors and tyrosine kinase inhibitors. Also called SU5416.

semen
The fluid that is released through the penis during orgasm. Semen is made up of sperm from the testicles and fluid from the prostate and other sex glands.

seminal fluid (SEM-in-al)
Fluid from the prostate and other sex glands that helps transport sperm out of the man's body during orgasm. Seminal fluid contains sugar as an energy source for sperm.

seminal vesicle (SEM-in-al VES-ih-kul)
A gland that helps produce semen.

seminal vesicle biopsy
The removal of fluid or tissue with a needle from the seminal vesicles for examination under a microscope. The seminal vesicles are glands in the male reproductive tract that produce a part of semen.

seminoma (sem-in-O-ma)
A type of cancer of the testicles. Seminomas may spread to the lung, bone, liver, or brain.

semiparasitic
In botany, a plant that gets food from a host but also contains chlorophyll and is capable of photosynthesis.

semustine
An anticancer drug that belongs to the family of drugs called alkylating agents.

senega root
The root of an herb called Polygala senega. It has been used in some cultures to treat certain medical problems, including problems of the respiratory system.

senile keratosis (SEE-nile KAYR-uh-TOH-sis)
A precancerous condition of thick, scaly patches of skin. Also called solar keratosis and actinic keratosis.

sensitivity
When referring to a medical test, sensitivity refers to the percentage of people who test positive for a specific disease among a group of people who have the disease. No test has 100% sensitivity because some people who have the disease will test negative for it (false negatives).

sensor
A device that responds to a stimulus, such as heat, light, or pressure, and generates a signal that can be measured or interpreted.

sensory
Having to do with the senses.

sentinel lymph node
The first lymph node to which cancer is likely to spread from the primary tumor. When cancer spreads, the cancer cells may appear first in the sentinel node before spreading to other lymph nodes.

sentinel lymph node biopsy
Removal and examination of the sentinel node(s) (the first lymph node(s) to which cancer cells are likely to spread from a primary tumor). To identify the sentinel lymph node(s), the surgeon injects a radioactive substance, blue dye, or both near the tumor. The surgeon then uses a scanner to find the sentinel lymph node(s) containing the radioactive substance or looks for the lymph node(s) stained with dye. The surgeon then removes the sentinel node(s) to check for the presence of cancer cells.

sentinel lymph node mapping
The use of dyes and radioactive substances to identify the first lymph node to which cancer is likely to spread from the primary tumor. Cancer cells may appear first in the sentinel node before spreading to other lymph nodes and other places in the body.

seocalcitol
A substance that is being studied as a treatment for cancer. It belongs to the family of drugs called vitamin D analogs.

sepsis (SEP-sis)
The presence of bacteria or their toxins in the blood or tissues.

septate (SEP-tate)
An organ or structure that is divided into compartments.

septicemia
Disease caused by the spread of bacteria and their toxins in the bloodstream. Also called blood poisoning and toxemia.

sequential treatment
One treatment after the other.

SERM
Selective estrogen receptor modulator. A drug that acts like estrogen on some tissues but blocks the effect of estrogen on other tissues. Tamoxifen and raloxifene are SERMs. Also called selective estrogen receptor modulator.

Seromycin (SAYR-oh-MY-sin)
A drug used to treat tuberculosis. It is also being studied in the treatment of pain and nerve problems (numbness, tingling) caused by chemotherapy and in the treatment of low back pain, autism, certain anxiety disorders, and schizophrenia. Seromycin is a type of antibiotic. Also called D-cycloserine.

serosa (seh-ROH-suh)
The outer lining of organs and body cavities of the abdomen and chest, including the stomach. Also called serous membrane.

serotonin
A hormone found in the brain, platelets, digestive tract, and pineal gland. It acts both as a neurotransmitter (a substance that nerves use to send messages to one another) and a vasoconstrictor (a substance that causes blood vessels to narrow). A lack of serotonin in the brain is thought to be a cause of depression. Also called 5-hydroxytryptamine.

serous (SEER-us)
Having to do with serum, the clear liquid part of blood.

serous membrane
The outer lining of organs and body cavities of the abdomen and chest, including the stomach. Also called serosa.

Sertoli-Leydig cell tumor of the ovary (ser-TOH-lee LY-dig sel TOO-mer...OH-vuh-ree)
A rare type of ovarian tumor in which the tumor cells secrete a male sex hormone. This may cause virilization (the appearance of male physical characteristics in females). Also called androblastoma and arrhenoblastoma.

sertraline
A drug used to treat depression. It is a type of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI). Also called Zoloft.

serum
The clear liquid part of the blood that remains after blood cells and clotting proteins have been removed.

serum albumin
The main protein in blood plasma. Low levels of serum albumin occur in people with malnutrition, inflammation, and serious liver and kidney disease.

serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase
SGPT. An enzyme found in the liver and other tissues. A high level of serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase released into the blood may be a sign of liver damage, cancer, or other diseases. Also called alanine transferase and SGPT.

serum glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase
SGOT. An enzyme found in the liver, heart, and other tissues. A high level of serum glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase released into the blood may be a sign of liver or heart damage, cancer, or other diseases. Also called aspartate transaminase and SGOT.

serum tumor marker test
A blood test that measures the amount of substances called tumor markers (or biomarkers). Tumor markers are released into the blood by tumor cells or by other cells in response to tumor cells. A high level of a tumor marker may be a sign of cancer.

Serzone
A drug used to treat depression. It belongs to the family of drugs called antidepressant agents. Also called nefazodone.

sesquiterpene lactone
A substance found in some plants. Sesquiterpene lactones may have anti-inflammatory and anticancer effects. Plants containing sesquiterpene lactones have been used in some cultures to treat certain medical problems.

sestamibi breast imaging
A type of breast imaging test that is used to detect cancer cells in the breasts of some women who have had abnormal mammograms, or who have dense breast tissue. Sestamibi breast imaging is not used for screening, or in place of a mammogram. In this test, a woman receives an injection of a small amount of a radioactive substance called technetium 99, which is taken up by cancer cells, and a gamma camera is used to take pictures of the breasts. Also called scintimammography and Miraluma test.

sestamibi scan (SES-tuh-MIH-bee... )
An imaging test used to find overactive parathyroid glands (four pea-sized glands found on the thyroid) and breast cancer cells, and to diagnose heart disease. The patient receives an injection of a small amount of a radioactive substance called technetium which is bound to another substance called sestamibi. This substance collects in overactive glands, cancer cells, heart muscle, or other tissues and a picture is taken by a gamma camera (a special camera that detects radioactivity).

severe myelosuppression (... MY-eh-loh-suh-PREH-shun)
A severe form of myelosuppression. Myelosuppression is a condition in which bone marrow activity is decreased, resulting in fewer red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets. It is a side effect of some cancer treatments. Also called myeloablation.

sexuality (SEK-shoo-A-lih-tee)
A person's behaviors, desires, and attitudes related to sex and physical intimacy with others.

Sezary syndrome (say-zah-REE SIN-drome)
A form of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma, a cancerous disease that affects the skin.

SGN-00101
A substance that is being studied in the prevention of cancer. It belongs to the family of drugs called fusion proteins.

SGN-15
A substance being studied in the treatment of cancer. It combines a monoclonal antibody with the anticancer drug doxorubicin. Monoclonal antibodies are substances that are made in the laboratory and that can locate and bind to cancer cells. Doxorubicin is a type of anthracycline antitumor antibiotic. When it is combined with a monoclonal antibody, it forms a type of drug conjugate. Also called cBR96-doxorubicin immunoconjugate.

SGN-30
A monoclonal antibody that binds to cells that have the CD30 antigen on their surface, including Hodgkin disease cells and cells from anaplastic large cell lymphoma, and cutaneous T-cell lymphoma. SGN-30 is being studied in the treatment of cancer. It is a type of monoclonal antibody.

SGN-40
A monoclonal antibody that binds to cells that have the CD40 antigen on their surface, including cells from multiple myeloma, non-Hodgkin lymphoma, and chronic lymphocytic leukemia. SGN-40 is being studied in the treatment of cancer. It is a type of monoclonal antibody.

SGOT
Serum glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase. An enzyme found in the liver, heart, and other tissues. A high level of SGOT released into the blood may be a sign of liver or heart damage, cancer, or other diseases. Also called aspartate transaminase and serum glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase.

SGPT
Serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase. An enzyme found in the liver and other tissues. A high level of SGPT released into the blood may be a sign of liver damage, cancer, or other diseases. Also called alanine transferase and serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase.

sham therapy (...THAYR-uh-pee)
An inactive treatment or procedure that is intended to mimic as closely as possible a therapy in a clinical trial. Also called placebo therapy.

shave biopsy (BY-ahp-see)
A procedure in which a skin abnormality and a thin layer of surrounding skin are removed with a small blade for examination under a microscope. Stitches are not needed with this procedure.

sheep sorrel
Rumex acetosella. A plant that has been used in some cultures to treat certain medical problems. It may have anticancer effects. Also called dock and sorrel.

Sheridan’s Formula
A liquid that has been promoted as a treatment for a wide range of diseases, including cancer. The ingredients thought to be in Sheridan’s Formula have been tested, and none of them has been shown to be effective in treating any form of cancer. Sheridan’s Formula is not available in the United States. Also called Protocel, Cancell, Jim’s Juice, Crocinic Acid, JS–114, JS–101, 126–F, and Cantron.

shiitake mushroom
Lentinus edodes. A dark oriental mushroom widely used as a food. Several anticancer substances have been found in shiitake mushrooms, including lentinan, which has been studied in Japan as a treatment for stomach and colorectal cancer.

shinbone
The larger of two bones between the knee and ankle. Also called tibia.

Sho-saiko-to
A Japanese formulation of seven Chinese herbs that is being studied as a treatment for cancer.

shunt
In medicine, a passage that is made to allow blood or other fluid to move from one part of the body to another. For example, a surgeon may implant a tube to drain cerebrospinal fluid from the brain to the abdomen. A surgeon may also change normal blood flow by making a passage that leads from one blood vessel to another.

sialic acid (sy-A-lik A-sid)
Any of a group of simple sugar molecules.

sialyl Tn-KLH
A vaccine composed of a substance that enhances immunity plus an antigen found on some tumors of the colon, breast, lung, ovary, pancreas, and stomach.

sickle cell anemia (SIH-kul sel uh-NEE-mee-uh)
An inherited disease in which the red blood cells have an abnormal crescent shape, block small blood vessels, and do not last as long as normal red blood cells. Sickle cell anemia is caused by a mutation (change) in one of the genes for hemoglobin (the substance inside red blood cells that binds to oxygen and carries it from the lungs to the tissues). It is most common in people of West and Central African descent. Also called sickle cell disease.

sickle cell disease (SIH-kul sel dih-ZEEZ)
An inherited disease in which the red blood cells have an abnormal crescent shape, block small blood vessels, and do not last as long as normal red blood cells. Sickle cell disease is caused by a mutation (change) in one of the genes for hemoglobin (the substance inside red blood cells that binds to oxygen and carries it from the lungs to the tissues). It is most common in people of West and Central African descent. Also called sickle cell anemia.

side effect
A problem that occurs when treatment affects healthy tissues or organs. Some common side effects of cancer treatment are fatigue, pain, nausea, vomiting, decreased blood cell counts, hair loss, and mouth sores.

side-to-end coloanal anastomosis
A surgical procedure in which the side of the colon is attached to the anus after the rectum has been removed. A section of the colon about 2 inches long is formed into a mini-pouch in order to replace the function of the rectum and store stool until it can be eliminated. This procedure is similar to the J-pouch coloanal anastomosis but a much smaller pouch is formed.

sideropenic dysphagia
A disorder marked by anemia caused by iron deficiency, and a web-like growth of membranes in the throat that makes swallowing difficult. Having sideropenic dysphagia may increase the risk of developing esophageal cancer. Also called Paterson-Kelly syndrome and Plummer-Vinson syndrome.

SIDS
Sudden infant death syndrome. The sudden and unexpected death of a healthy child who is younger than one year old, usually during sleep. The cause of SIDS is not known. Also called sudden infant death syndrome and crib death.

sigmoid colon (SIG-moyd KO-lun)
The S-shaped section of the colon that connects to the rectum.

sigmoidoscope (sig-MOY-doh-skope)
A thin, tube-like instrument used to examine the inside of the colon. A sigmoidoscope has a light and a lens for viewing and may have a tool to remove tissue.

sigmoidoscopy (sig-MOY-DOS-koh-pee)
Examination of the lower colon using a sigmoidoscope, inserted into the rectum. A sigmoidoscope is a thin, tube-like instrument with a light and a lens for viewing. It may also have a tool to remove tissue to be checked under a microscope for signs of disease. Also called proctosigmoidoscopy.

signal transduction inhibitor
A drug that may prevent the ability of cancer cells to multiply quickly and invade other tissues.

signaling pathway (SIG-nuh-ling …)
A series of specific actions in a cell in which a signal is passed from one molecule to the next in the series. Signaling pathways are used to control many cell functions, such as cell division and programmed cell death.

signature molecule (SIG-nuh-choor MAH-leh-kyool)
A biological molecule found in the blood, other body fluids, or tissues. It can be a sign of a normal or abnormal condition, such as an individual’s state of health or a disease. It may be used to determine the response to a particular treatment for a disease or condition. Examples of signature molecules are enzymes, products of enzyme reactions, hormone levels, and mutated (changed) DNA. Also called molecular marker and biomarker.

signet ring cell carcinoma
A highly malignant type of cancer typically found in glandular cells that line the digestive organs. The cells resemble signet rings when examined under a microscope.

significant
In statistics, describes a mathematical measure of difference between groups. The difference is said to be significant if it is greater than what might be expected to happen by chance alone. Also called statistically significant.

SIL
Squamous intraepithelial lesion. A general term for the abnormal growth of squamous cells on the surface of the cervix. The changes in the cells are described as low grade or high grade, depending on how much of the cervix is affected and how abnormal the cells appear. Also called squamous intraepithelial lesion.

sildenafil
A drug used to treat erectile dysfunction. Sildenafil relaxes the smooth muscle of the penis to allow increased blood flow and erection. It is a type of phosphodiesterase inhibitor. Also called Viagra.

silicon phthalocyanine 4 (SIH-lih-KON THAH-loh-SY-uh-NEEN)
A drug that is being studied in the treatment of cancer. When absorbed by cancer cells and exposed to light, it becomes active and kills the cancer cells. It belongs to the family of drugs called photodynamic therapy agents.

silicone
A synthetic gel that is used as an outer coating on breast implants and as the inside filling of some implants.

Silybum marianum
A plant that has been used in some cultures to treat certain medical problems, including stomach, liver, and gallbladder disorders. The active extract of Silybum marianum seeds is called silymarin. It is being studied in the prevention of liver damage caused by some cancer treatments. Also called milk thistle.

silymarin
A substance obtained from milk thistle seeds that is being studied in the prevention of liver damage caused by certain cancer treatments.

simian virus 40 (SIH-mee-un VY-rus…)
SV40. A virus that infects some types of monkeys. It may also infect humans, and was found in some polio vaccines tested in the early 1960s. Although the virus has been shown to cause cancer in laboratory animals, there is no evidence that it causes cancer in people. Also called SV40.

simple mastectomy (SIM-pul ma-STEK-toh-mee)
Removal of the breast. Also called total mastectomy.

simple nephrectomy (SIM-pul neh-FREK-toh-mee)
Surgery to remove one kidney.

simple vulvectomy (SIM-pul vul-VEK-toh-mee)
Surgery to remove the entire vulva (the external female genital organs, including the clitoris, vaginal lips, and the opening to the vagina).

simulation
In cancer treatment, a process used to plan radiation therapy so that the target area is precisely located and marked.

single blind study
A type of clinical trial in which only the doctor knows whether a patient is taking the standard treatment or the new treatment being tested. This helps prevent bias in treatment studies.

single nucleotide polymorphism (... NOO-klee-oh-TIDE PAH-lee-MOR-fih-zum)
SNP. The most common type of change in DNA (molecules inside cells that carry genetic information). Single nucleotide polymorphisms occur when a single nucleotide (building block of DNA) is replaced with another. These changes may cause disease, and may affect how a person reacts to bacteria, viruses, drugs, and other substances. Also called SNP.

single-photon emission computed tomography (SIN-gul-FOH-ton ee-MIH-shun kum-PYOO-ted toh-MAH-gruh-fee)
SPECT. A special type of computed tomography (CT) scan in which a small amount of a radioactive drug is injected into a vein and a scanner is used to make detailed images of areas inside the body where the radioactive material is taken up by the cells. SPECT can give information about blood flow to tissues and chemical reactions (metabolism) in the body. Also called SPECT.

siplizumab
A monoclonal antibody that is being studied in the treatment of certain lymphoproliferative disorders and psoriasis. Also called MEDI-507.

Sipuleucel-T (SY-puh-LOO-sel...)
A vaccine made from immune system cells collected from a patient with prostate cancer. The cells are treated in the laboratory with a growth factor attached to a protein found on prostate cell cancer cells. Sipuleucel-T injected into patients may stimulate T lymphocytes to kill tumor cells that express the prostate protein. Also called APC8015 and Provenge.

sirolimus
A drug used to help prevent the body from rejecting organ and bone marrow transplants. It is also being studied as a treatment for cancer. Sirolimus belongs to the family of drugs called immunosuppressants. It was previously called rapamycin.

SIRS
Systemic inflammatory response syndrome. A serious condition in which there is inflammation throughout the whole body. It may be caused by a severe bacterial infection (sepsis), trauma, or pancreatitis. It is marked by fast heart rate, low blood pressure, low or high body temperature, and low or high white blood cell count. The condition may lead to multiple organ failure and shock. Also called systemic inflammatory response syndrome.

SJG-136
A substance that is being studied in the treatment of cancer. It belongs to the family of drugs called DNA cross-linking agents.

Sjögren syndrome (SHOH-grin SIN-drome)
An autoimmune disease that affects the tear glands and salivary glands, and may affect glands in the stomach, pancreas, and intestines. The disease causes dry eyes and mouth, and may cause dryness in the nose, throat, air passages, skin, and vagina. It may also cause inflammation in the joints, muscles, and skin; pneumonia; tingling in the fingers and toes; and fatigue. It often occurs with rheumatoid arthritis or other connective tissue diseases.

SK&F106615
A substance being studied in the treatment of certain multiple myelomas and other advanced cancers. SK&F106615 may block the growth of tumors and the growth of blood vessels from surrounding tissue to the tumor. SK&F106615 is a type of signal transduction inhibitor. Also called azaspirane and atiprimod.

skeletal (SKEH-leh-tul)
Having to do with the skeleton (bones of the body).

skeleton
The framework that supports the soft tissues of vertebrate animals and protects many of their internal organs. The skeletons of vertebrates are made of bone and/or cartilage.

skin cancer (skin KAN-ser)
Cancer that forms in tissues of the skin. When cancer forms in cells that make pigment, it is called melanoma. When cancer forms in cells that do not make pigment it may begin in basal cells (small, round cells in the base of the outer layer of skin) or squamous cells (flat cells that form the surface of the skin). Both types of skin cancer usually occur in skin that has been exposed to sunlight, such as the skin on the face, neck, hands, and arms.

skin conduction (... kon-DUK-shun)
A change in the heat and electricity passed through the skin by nerves and sweat. Skin conduction increases in certain emotional states and during hot flashes that happen with menopause. Also called galvanic skin response and electrodermal response.

skin graft
Skin that is moved from one part of the body to another.

skin patch
A bandage-like patch that releases medicine into the body through the skin. The medicine enters the blood slowly and steadily.

skin stimulation
The process of applying pressure, friction, temperature change, or chemical substances to the skin to lessen or block a feeling of pain.

skin test
A test for an immune response to a compound by placing it on or under the skin.

skinning vulvectomy (SKIH-ning vul-VEK-toh-mee)
Surgery to remove the top layer of skin of the vulva (the external female genital organs, including the clitoris, vaginal lips, and the opening to the vagina). A skin graft may be used to replace the skin that was removed.

SL-11047
A substance that is being studied in the treatment of lymphoma. It belongs to the family of drugs called polyamine analogs.

SLE
Systemic lupus erythematosus. A chronic, inflammatory, connective tissue disease that can affect many organs including the joints, skin, heart, lungs, kidneys, and nervous system. It is marked by many different symptoms; however, not everyone with SLE has all of the symptoms. Also called lupus and systemic lupus erythematosus.

sleep apnea (… AP-nee-uh)
A sleep disorder that is marked by pauses in breathing of 10 seconds or more during sleep, and causes unrestful sleep. Symptoms include loud or abnormal snoring, daytime sleepiness, irritability, and depression.

sleep disorder (sleep dis-OR-der)
A disturbance of normal sleep patterns. There are a number of sleep disorders that range from trouble falling asleep, to nightmares, sleepwalking, and sleep apnea (problems with breathing that cause loud snoring). Poor sleep may also be caused by diseases such as heart disease, lung disease, or nerve disorders.

sleep stage
One of 5 parts or stages of the sleep cycle based on the type of brain activity that occurs during the stage. During stages 1 to 4, a person will feel drowsy, fall asleep, and move into a deep, dreamless sleep. Stage 5 is called rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, and it is during this stage that dreams occur. During several hours of normal sleep, a person will go through several sleep cycles that include REM sleep and the 4 stages of non-REM sleep (light to deep sleep).

sleeve lobectomy (...loh-BEK-toh-mee)
Surgery to remove a lung tumor in a lobe of the lung and a part of the main bronchus (airway). The ends of the bronchus are rejoined and any remaining lobes are reattached to the bronchus. This surgery is done to save part of the lung. Also called sleeve resection.

sleeve resection (...ree-SEK-shun)
Surgery to remove a lung tumor in a lobe of the lung and a part of the main bronchus (airway). The ends of the bronchus are rejoined and any remaining lobes are reattached to the bronchus. This surgery is done to save part of the lung. Also called sleeve lobectomy.

slippery elm
The inner bark of this plant has been used in some cultures to treat certain medical problems. It may have antioxidant effects. Also called gray elm, Indian elm, red elm, sweet elm, Ulmus fulva, and Ulmus rubra.

slit-lamp biomicroscopy (… BY-oh-my-KROS-koh-pee)
An eye exam using an instrument that combines a low-power microscope with a light source that makes a narrow beam of light. The instrument may be used to examine the retina, optic nerve, and other parts of the eye. Also called slit-lamp eye exam.

slit-lamp eye exam
An eye exam using an instrument that combines a low-power microscope with a light source that makes a narrow beam of light. The instrument may be used to examine the retina, optic nerve, and other parts of the eye. Also called slit-lamp biomicroscopy.

small cell lung cancer
An aggressive (fast-growing) cancer that forms in tissues of the lung and can spread to other parts of the body. The cancer cells look small and oval-shaped when looked at under a microscope.

small intestine (... in-TES-tin)
The part of the digestive tract that is located between the stomach and the large intestine.

small intestine cancer (... in-TES-tin KAN-ser)
A rare cancer that forms in tissues of the small intestine (the part of the digestive tract between the stomach and the large intestine). The most common type is adenocarcinoma (cancer that begins in cells that make and release mucus and other fluids). Other types of small intestine cancer include sarcoma (cancer that begins in connective or supportive tissue), carcinoid tumor (a slow-growing type of cancer), gastrointestinal stromal tumor (a type of soft tissue sarcoma), and lymphoma (cancer that begins in immune system cells).

small lymphocytic lymphoma (LIM-foh-SI-tik lim-FOH-muh)
An indolent (slow-growing) type of B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma marked by swollen lymph nodes that usually occurs in people older than 50 years. It is very similar to a form of leukemia called chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). Also called well-differentiated lymphocytic lymphoma.

smoldering leukemia
A group of diseases in which the bone marrow does not make enough healthy blood cells. Also called preleukemia and myelodysplastic syndromes.

smoldering myeloma (... MY-eh-LOH-muh)
A very slow-growing type of myeloma in which abnormal plasma cells (a type of white blood cell) make too much of a single type of monoclonal antibody (a protein). This protein builds up in the blood or is passed in the urine. Patients with smoldering myeloma usually have no symptoms, but need to be checked often for signs of progression to fully developed multiple myeloma.

SN-38 liposome (...LY-poh-SOME)
A form of the anticancer drug irinotecan that may have fewer side effects and work better than irinotecan alone. SN-38 liposome is being studied in the treatment of advanced colorectal cancer and other types of cancer. It belongs to the family of drugs called irinotecan (CPT-11) derivatives. Also called liposomal SN-38.

SnET2
An anticancer drug that is also used in cancer prevention. It belongs to the family of drugs called photosensitizing agents. Also called tin ethyl etiopurpurin.

SNP
Single nucleotide polymorphism. The most common type of change in DNA (molecules inside cells that carry genetic information). SNPs occur when a single nucleotide (building block of DNA) is replaced with another. These changes may cause disease, and may affect how a person reacts to bacteria, viruses, drugs, and other substances. Also called single nucleotide polymorphism.

SNX 111
A drug used in the treatment of chronic pain. Also called ziconotide.

soblidotin
A substance that is being studied in the treatment of cancer. It belongs to the family of drugs called tubulin inhibitors. Also called TZT-1027.

social service (SOH-shul SER-vis)
A community resource that helps people in need. Services may include help getting to and from medical appointments, home delivery of medication and meals, in-home nursing care, help paying medical costs not covered by insurance, loaning medical equipment, and housekeeping help.

social support (SOH-shul suh-PORT)
A network of family, friends, neighbors, and community members that is available in times of need to give psychological, physical, and financial help.

social worker
A professional trained to talk with people and their families about emotional or physical needs, and to find them support services.

sodium (SOH-dee-um)
A mineral needed by the body to keep body fluids in balance. Sodium is found in table salt and in many processed foods. Too much sodium can cause the body to retain water.

sodium borocaptate (SOH-dee-um BORE-oh-KAP-tayt)
BSH. A substance used in a type of radiation therapy called boron neutron capture therapy. Sodium borocaptate is injected into a vein and becomes concentrated in tumor cells. The patient then receives radiation treatment with atomic particles called neutrons. The neutrons react with the boron in sodium borocaptate and make radioactive particles that kill the tumor cells without harming normal cells. Also called BSH.

sodium salicylate (SOH-dee-um suh-LIH-sih-LAYT)
A drug that is a type of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug. Sodium salicylate may be tolerated by people who are sensitive to aspirin.

sodium stibogluconate (SOH-dee-um stib-oh-GLOO-kuh-nayt)
SSG. A substance being studied in the treatment of certain solid tumors, lymphoma, and myeloma. Sodium stibogluconate may block enzymes needed for cancer growth. It is a type of pentavalent antimonial. Also called SSG.

sodium sulfite (SOH-dee-um SUL-fite)
A chemical used in photography, paper making, water treatment, and for other purposes.

sodium thiosulfate (SOH-dee-um THY-oh-SUL-fayt)
A substance that is used in medicine as an antidote to cyanide poisoning and to decrease side effects of the anticancer drug cisplatin.

soft diet
A diet consisting of bland foods that are softened by cooking, mashing, pureeing, or blending.

soft palate (PAL-et)
The back, muscular (not bony) part of the roof of the mouth.

soft tissue
Refers to muscle, fat, fibrous tissue, blood vessels, or other supporting tissue of the body.

soft tissue sarcoma (…TIH-shoo sar-KOH-muh)
A cancer that begins in the muscle, fat, fibrous tissue, blood vessels, or other supporting tissue of the body.

solar keratosis
A precancerous condition of thick, scaly patches of skin. Also called actinic keratosis and senile keratosis.

solid tumor
An abnormal mass of tissue that usually does not contain cysts or liquid areas. Solid tumors may be benign (not cancerous), or malignant (cancerous). Different types of solid tumors are named for the type of cells that form them. Examples of solid tumors are sarcomas, carcinomas, and lymphomas. Leukemias (cancers of the blood) generally do not form solid tumors.

Soliris (soh-LAYR-is)
A monoclonal antibody used to prevent red blood cells from being destroyed in patients with paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH), a red blood cell disorder. Monoclonal antibodies are made in the laboratory and can locate and bind to substances in the body. Soliris blocks a protein in the blood that causes the breakdown of red blood cells. Also called eculizumab.

soluble (SOL-yoo-bul)
Able to be dissolved in a liquid.

solvent (SOL-vent)
A liquid that is able to dissolve a solid.

somatic (soh-MA-tik)
Having to do with the body.

somatic cell (soh-MA-tik ...)
Any of the body cells except the reproductive (germ) cells.

somatic mutation (soh-MA-tik myoo-TAY-shun)
An alteration in DNA that occurs after conception. Somatic mutations can occur in any of the cells of the body except the germ cells (sperm and egg) and therefore are not passed on to children. These alterations can (but do not always) cause cancer or other diseases.

somatostatin receptor scintigraphy
SRS. A type of radionuclide scan used to find carcinoid and other types of tumors. In SRS, radioactive octreotide, a drug similar to somatostatin, is injected into a vein and travels through the bloodstream. The radioactive octreotide attaches to tumor cells that have receptors for somatostatin. A radiation-measuring device detects the radioactive octreotide, and makes pictures showing where the tumor cells are in the body. Also called octreotide scan and SRS.

somatotropin (SOH-muh-toh-TROH-pin)
A protein made by the pituitary gland that helps control body growth and the use of glucose and fat in the body. Also called growth hormone.

somnolence syndrome (SOM-noh-lens SIN-drome)
Periods of drowsiness, lethargy, loss of appetite, and irritability in children following radiation therapy treatments to the head.

sonogram (SON-o-gram)
A computer picture of areas inside the body created by bouncing high-energy sound waves (ultrasound) off internal tissues or organs. Also called an ultrasonogram.

sorafenib (soh-RAF-eh-nib)
A drug used to treat advanced kidney cancer and a type of liver cancer that cannot be removed by surgery. It is also being studied in the treatment of other types of cancer. Sorafenib stops cells from dividing and may prevent the growth of new blood vessels needed for tumors to grow. It is a type of kinase inhibitor and a type of angiogenesis inhibitor. Also called BAY 43-9006, sorafenib tosylate, and Nexavar.

sorafenib tosylate (soh-RAF-eh-nib TOH-suh-layt)
A drug used to treat advanced kidney cancer and a type of liver cancer that cannot be removed by surgery. It is also being studied in the treatment of other types of cancer. Sorafenib tosylate stops cells from dividing and may prevent the growth of new blood vessels needed for tumors to grow. It is a type of kinase inhibitor and a type of angiogenesis inhibitor. Also called sorafenib, BAY 43-9006, and Nexavar.

sorivudine
An antiviral drug that is being studied as a treatment for herpesvirus. It belongs to the family of drugs called nucleic acid synthesis inhibitors.

sorrel
Rumex acetosella. A plant that has been used in some cultures to treat certain medical problems. It may have anticancer effects. Also called sheep sorrel and dock.

soy
Glycine max. A plant of Asian origin that produces beans used in many food products. Soy products contain isoflavones (estrogen-like substances) that are being studied for the prevention of cancer, hot flashes that occur with menopause, and osteoporosis (loss of bone density). Soy products in the diet may lower cholesterol levels and reduce the risk of heart disease. Also called soya, soybean, and Glycine max.

soya (SOY-uh)
Glycine max. A plant of Asian origin that produces beans used in many food products. Soy products contain isoflavones (estrogen-like substances) that are being studied for the prevention of cancer, hot flashes that occur with menopause, and osteoporosis (loss of bone density). Soy products in the diet may lower cholesterol levels and reduce the risk of heart disease. Also called soy, soybean, and Glycine max.

soybean
Glycine max. A plant of Asian origin that produces beans used in many food products. Soy products contain isoflavones (estrogen-like substances) that are being studied for the prevention of cancer, hot flashes that occur with menopause, and osteoporosis (loss of bone density). Soy products in the diet may lower cholesterol levels and reduce the risk of heart disease. Also called soy, soya, and Glycine max.

spasm (SPA-zum)
A sudden contraction of a muscle or group of muscles, such as a cramp.

specialist (SPEH-shuh-list)
In medicine, a doctor or other health care professional who is trained and licensed in a special area of practice. Examples of medical specialists include oncologists (cancer specialists) and hematologists (blood specialists).

specific immune cell (speh-SIH-fik ih-MYOON SEL)
An immune cell such as a T or B lymphocyte that responds to a single, specific antigen.

specificity
When referring to a medical test, specificity refers to the percentage of people who test negative for a specific disease among a group of people who do not have the disease. No test is 100% specific because some people who do not have the disease will test positive for it (false positive).

SPECT
Single-photon emission computed tomography. A special type of computed tomography (CT) scan in which a small amount of a radioactive drug is injected into a vein and a scanner is used to make detailed images of areas inside the body where the radioactive material is taken up by the cells. SPECT can give information about blood flow to tissues and chemical reactions (metabolism) in the body. Also called single-photon emission computed tomography.

speculum (SPEK-yoo-lum)
An instrument used to widen an opening of the body to make it easier to look inside.

speech pathologist (... puh-THAH-loh-jist)
A specialist who evaluates and treats people with communication and swallowing problems. Also called a speech therapist.

speech therapist
A specialist who evaluates and treats people with communication and swallowing problems. Also called a speech pathologist.

sperm (spurm)
The male reproductive cell, formed in the testicle. A sperm unites with an egg to form an embryo.

sperm banking (spurm...)
Freezing sperm for use in the future. This procedure can allow men to father children after loss of fertility.

sperm count (spurm kownt)
A count of the number of sperm in a sample of semen. A sperm count may be used as a measure of fertility.

sperm retrieval (spurm rih-TREE-vul)
Removal of sperm from a man's testis or epididymis by a doctor using a fine needle or other instrument.

SPF
Sun protection factor. A scale for rating the level of sunburn protection in sunscreen products. The higher the SPF, the more sunburn protection it gives. Sunscreens with a value of 2 through 11 give minimal protection against sunburns. Sunscreens with a value of 12 through 29 give moderate protection. SPFs of 30 or higher give high protection against sunburn. Also called sun protection factor.

sphincter
A ring-shaped muscle that relaxes or tightens to open or close a passage or opening in the body. Examples are the anal sphincter (around the opening of the anus) and the pyloric sphincter (at the lower opening of the stomach).

spiculated mass (SPIK-you-lay-ted...)
A lump of tissue with spikes or points on the surface.

spinal column (SPY-nul KAH-lum)
The bones, muscles, tendons, and other tissues that reach from the base of the skull to the tailbone. The spinal column encloses the spinal cord and the fluid surrounding the spinal cord. Also called spine, backbone, and vertebral column.

spinal cord
A column of nerve tissue that runs from the base of the skull down the back. It is surrounded by three protective membranes, and is enclosed within the vertebrae (back bones). The spinal cord and the brain make up the central nervous system, and spinal cord nerves carry most messages between the brain and the rest of the body.

spinal tap
A procedure in which a needle is put into the lower part of the spinal column to collect cerebrospinal fluid or to give drugs. Also called lumbar puncture.

spindle cell cancer (... KAN-ser)
A type of cancer that begins in the skin or in tissues that line or cover internal organs and that contains long spindle-shaped cells. Also called sarcomatoid carcinoma.

spindle cell sarcoma
A type of connective tissue cancer in which the cells are spindle-shaped when examined under a microscope.

spine
The bones, muscles, tendons, and other tissues that reach from the base of the skull to the tailbone. The spine encloses the spinal cord and the fluid surrounding the spinal cord. Also called backbone, spinal column, and vertebral column.

spine cancer
Cancer that begins in the spinal column (backbone) or spinal cord. The spinal column is made up of linked bones, called vertebrae. The spinal cord is a column of nerve tissue that runs from the base of the skull down the back. It is surrounded by three protective membranes, and is enclosed within the vertebrae. Many different types of cancer may form in the bones, tissues, fluid, or nerves of the spine.

spiral CT scan
A detailed picture of areas inside the body. The pictures are created by a computer linked to an x-ray machine that scans the body in a spiral path. Also called helical computed tomography.

spirituality (SPIR-ih-choo-A-lih-tee)
Having to do with deep, often religious, feelings and beliefs, including a person’s sense of peace, purpose, connection to others, and beliefs about the meaning of life.

spleen
An organ that is part of the lymphatic system. The spleen produces lymphocytes, filters the blood, stores blood cells, and destroys old blood cells. It is located on the left side of the abdomen near the stomach.

splenectomy (spleh-NEK-toh-mee)
An operation to remove the spleen.

splenic (SPLEH-nik)
Having to do with the spleen (an organ in the abdomen that makes immune cells, filters the blood, stores blood cells, and destroys old blood cells).

splenomegaly
Enlarged spleen.

spotted thistle (... THIH-sel)
A plant whose leaves, stems, and flowers have been used in some cultures to treat certain medical problems. Spotted thistle may have anti-inflammatory and anticancer effects. The scientific name is Cnicus benedictus. Also called blessed thistle, St. Benedict's thistle, cardin, and holy thistle.

Sprycel (SPRY-sel)
A drug used to treat certain types of chronic myeloid leukemia and acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Sprycel is also being studied in the treatment of certain other blood diseases and types of cancer. Sprycel binds to and blocks BCR-ABL and other proteins that help cancer cells grow. It is a type of tyrosine kinase inhibitor. Also called dasatinib and BMS-354825.

sputum (SPYOO-tum)
Mucus and other matter brought up from the lungs by coughing.

sputum cytology (SPYOO-tum sy-TAH-loh-jee)
Examination under a microscope of cells found in sputum (mucus and other matter brought up from the lungs by coughing). The test checks for abnormal cells, such as lung cancer cells.

squalamine lactate
A drug that belongs to the family of drugs called angiogenesis inhibitors. It prevents the growth of new blood vessels into a solid tumor.

squamous cell (SKWAY-mus sel)
Flat cell that looks like a fish scale under a microscope. These cells cover inside and outside surfaces of the body. They are found in the tissues that form the surface of the skin, the lining of the hollow organs of the body (such as the bladder, kidney, and uterus), and the passages of the respiratory and digestive tracts.

squamous cell carcinoma (SKWAY-mus sel KAR-sih-NOH-muh)
Cancer that begins in squamous cells, which are thin, flat cells that look like fish scales. Squamous cells are found in the tissue that forms the surface of the skin, the lining of the hollow organs of the body, and the passages of the respiratory and digestive tracts. Also called epidermoid carcinoma.

squamous intraepithelial lesion (SKWAY-mus IN-truh-eh-pih-THEEL-ee-ul LEE-zhun)
SIL. A general term for the abnormal growth of squamous cells on the surface of the cervix. The changes in the cells are described as low grade or high grade, depending on how much of the cervix is affected and how abnormal the cells appear. Also called SIL.

SR-29142
A drug that may protect healthy tissue from the toxic effects of anticancer drugs.

SR-45023A
An anticancer drug that belongs to the family of drugs called bisphosphonates. It affects cancer cell receptors governing cell growth and cell death.

SR49059
A substance that is being studied in the treatment of cancer. It inhibits a hormone growth factor that causes some cancer cells to divide. It belongs to the family of drugs called vasopressin receptor antagonists.

SRS
Somatostatin receptor scintigraphy. A type of radionuclide scan used to find carcinoid and other types of tumors. In SRS, radioactive octreotide, a drug similar to somatostatin, is injected into a vein and travels through the bloodstream. The radioactive octreotide attaches to tumor cells that have receptors for somatostatin. A radiation-measuring device detects the radioactive octreotide, and makes pictures showing where the tumor cells are in the body. Also called somatostatin receptor scintigraphy and octreotide scan.

SSG
Sodium stibogluconate. A substance being studied in the treatment of certain solid tumors, lymphoma, and myeloma. SSG may block enzymes needed for cancer growth. It is a type of pentavalent antimonial. Also called sodium stibogluconate.

SSRI
Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor. A type of drug that is used to treat depression. SSRIs slow the process by which serotonin (a substance that nerves use to send messages to one another) is reused by nerve cells that make it. This increases the amount of serotonin available for stimulating other nerves. Also called selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor.

St. Benedict's thistle (SAYNT BEH-neh-diktz THIH-sel)
A plant whose leaves, stems, and flowers have been used in some cultures to treat certain medical problems. St. Benedict's thistle may have anti-inflammatory and anticancer effects. The scientific name is Cnicus benedictus. Also called blessed thistle, cardin, holy thistle, and spotted thistle.

St. John's wort
An herbal product sold as an over-the-counter treatment for depression. It is being studied for its ability to lessen certain side effects of cancer treatment. The scientific name is Hypericum perforatum.

ST1481
A substance that is being studied in the treatment of cancer. It belongs to the family of drugs called topoisomerase inhibitors. Also called gimatecan.

stable disease
Cancer that is neither decreasing nor increasing in extent or severity.

stage
The extent of a cancer in the body. Staging is usually based on the size of the tumor, whether lymph nodes contain cancer, and whether the cancer has spread from the original site to other parts of the body.

stage 0 anal carcinoma in situ (... AY-nul KAR-sih-NOH-muh in SY-too)
Abnormal cells are found in the innermost lining of the anus. These abnormal cells may become cancer and spread into nearby normal tissue.

stage 0 bladder carcinoma in situ (... BLA-der KAR-sih-NOH-muh in SY-too)
Abnormal cells are found on tissue lining the inside of the bladder. These abnormal cells may become cancer and spread into nearby normal tissue. Stage 0 is divided into stage 0a (papillary carcinoma) and stage 0is (carcinoma in situ), depending on the type of tumor. Stage 0a may look like tiny mushrooms growing from the lining of the bladder. Stage 0is is a flat tumor on the tissue lining the inside of the bladder.

stage 0 breast carcinoma in situ (... brest KAR-sih-NOH-muh in SY-too)
In stage 0, abnormal cells are found in the breast. There are 2 types of stage 0: ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) and lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS). DCIS is a noninvasive, precancerous condition in which abnormal cells are found in the lining of a breast duct (a tube that carries milk to the nipple). The abnormal cells have not spread outside the duct to other tissues in the breast. In some cases, DCIS may spread to other tissues, although it is not known how to predict which lesions will become invasive cancer. LCIS is a condition in which abnormal cells are found in the lobules (small sections of tissue involved with making milk) of the breast. This condition seldom becomes invasive cancer; however, having LCIS in one breast increases the risk of developing breast cancer in either breast.

stage 0 cervical carcinoma in situ (... SER-vih-kul KAR-sih-NOH-muh in SY-too)
Abnormal cells are found in the cervical epithelium (the innermost lining of the cervix). These abnormal cells may become cancer and spread into nearby normal tissue. Also called cervical squamous intraepithelial neoplasia 3 and CIN 3.

stage 0 chronic lymphocytic leukemia (... KRAH-nik LIM-foh-SIH-tik loo-KEE-mee-uh)
There are too many lymphocytes in the blood, but there are no other symptoms of leukemia. Stage 0 is indolent (slow-growing).

stage 0 colorectal carcinoma in situ (...KOH-loh-REK-tul KAR-sih-NOH-muh in SY-too)
Abnormal cells are found in the innermost lining of the colon and/or rectum. These abnormal cells may become cancer and spread into nearby normal tissue.

stage 0 esophageal carcinoma in situ (...ee-SAH-fuh-JEE-ul KAR-sih-NOH-muh in SY-too)
Abnormal cells are found in the innermost layer of tissue lining the esophagus. These abnormal cells may become cancer and spread into nearby normal tissue.

stage 0 extrahepatic bile duct carcinoma in situ (... EK-struh-heh-PA-tik bile dukt KAR-sih-NOH-muh in SY-too)
Abnormal cells are found in the innermost layer of tissue lining the extrahepatic bile duct. These abnormal cells may become cancer and spread into nearby normal tissue.

stage 0 gallbladder carcinoma in situ (... GAWL-bla-der KAR-sih-NOH-muh in SY-too)
Abnormal cells are found in the innermost (mucosal) layer of the gallbladder. These abnormal cells may become cancer and spread into nearby normal tissue.

stage 0 gastric carcinoma in situ (... GAS-trik KAR-sih-NOH-muh in SY-too)
Abnormal cells are found in the inside lining of the mucosal (innermost) layer of the stomach wall. These abnormal cells may become cancer and spread into nearby normal tissue.

stage 0 hypopharyngeal carcinoma in situ (... HY-poh-fuh-RIN-jee-ul KAR-sih-NOH-muh in SY-too)
Abnormal cells are found in the lining of the hypopharynx. These abnormal cells may become cancer and spread into nearby normal tissue.

stage 0 laryngeal carcinoma in situ (...luh-RIN-jul KAR-sih-NOH-muh in SY-too)
Abnormal cells are found in the lining of the larynx. These abnormal cells may become cancer and spread into nearby normal tissue.

stage 0 lip and oral cavity carcinoma in situ (... OR-ul KA-vih-tee KAR-sih-NOH-muh in SY-too)
Abnormal cells are found in the lining of the lips and oral cavity (mouth). These abnormal cells may become cancer and spread into nearby normal tissue.

stage 0 maxillary sinus carcinoma in situ (... MAK-sih-layr-ee SY-nus KAR-sih-NOH-muh in SY-too)
Abnormal cells are found in the innermost lining of the maxillary sinus. These abnormal cells may become cancer and spread into nearby normal tissue.

stage 0 medullary thyroid carcinoma in situ (... MED-yoo-LAYR-ee THY-royd KAR-sih-NOH-muh in SY-too)
No tumor is found in the thyroid but abnormal cells are found by screening tests. These abnormal cells may become cancer and spread into nearby normal tissue.

stage 0 melanoma (... MEH-luh-NOH-muh)
Abnormal melanocytes (cells that make melanin, the pigment that gives skin its color) are found in the epidermis (outer layer of the skin). These abnormal melanocytes may become cancer and spread into nearby normal tissue. Also called melanoma in situ.

stage 0 nasal cavity and ethmoid sinus carcinoma in situ (... NAY-zul KA-vih-tee … ETH-moyd SY-nus KAR-sih-NOH-muh in SY-too)
Abnormal cells are found in the innermost lining of the nasal cavity or ethmoid sinus. These abnormal cells may become cancer and spread into nearby normal tissue.

stage 0 nasopharyngeal carcinoma in situ (...NAY-zoh-fuh-RIN-jee-ul KAR-sih-NOH-muh in SY-too)
Abnormal cells are found in the lining of the nasopharynx (the upper part of the throat behind the nose). These abnormal cells may become cancer and spread into nearby normal tissue.

stage 0 non-small cell lung carcinoma in situ (... KAR-sih-NOH-muh in SY-too)
Abnormal cells are found in the innermost lining of the lung. These abnormal cells may become cancer and spread into nearby normal tissue.

stage 0 oropharyngeal carcinoma in situ (...or-oh-fuh-RIN-jee-ul KAR-sih-NOH-muh in SY-too)
Abnormal cells are found in the lining of the oropharynx (the part of the throat at the back of the mouth). These abnormal cells may become cancer and spread into nearby normal tissue.

stage 0 pancreatic carcinoma in situ (...PAN-kree-A-tik KAR-sih-NOH-muh in SY-too)
Abnormal cells are found in the lining of the pancreas. These abnormal cells may become cancer and spread into nearby normal tissue.

stage 0 penile carcinoma in situ (... PEE-nile KAR-sih-NOH-muh in SY-too)
Abnormal cells are found on the surface of the skin of the penis. These abnormal cells may become cancer and spread into nearby normal tissue.

stage 0 skin carcinoma in situ (... KAR-sih-NOH-muh in SY-too)
Abnormal cells are found in the squamous cell or basal cell layer of the epidermis (topmost layer of the skin). These abnormal cells may become cancer and spread into nearby normal tissue.

stage 0 testicular carcinoma in situ (...tes-TIH-kyuh-ler KAR-sih-NOH-muh in SY-too)
Abnormal cells are found in the tiny tubules where the sperm cells begin to develop. These abnormal cells may become cancer and spread into nearby normal tissue. All tumor marker levels are normal.

stage 0 transitional cell carcinoma in situ of the renal pelvis and ureter (...tran-ZIH-shuh-nul sel KAR-sih-NOH-muh in SY-too...REE-nul PEL-vus and YER-eh-ter)
Abnormal cells are found in tissue lining the inside of the renal pelvis or ureter. These abnormal cells may become cancer and spread into nearby normal tissue. Stage 0 is divided into stages 0a (papillary carcinoma) and 0is (carcinoma in situ), depending on the type of tumor. Stage 0a may look like tiny mushrooms growing from the lining of the renal pelvis or ureter. Stage 0is is a flat tumor on the tissue lining the inside of the renal pelvis or ureter.

stage 0 urethral carcinoma in situ (... yoo-REE-thrul KAR-sih-NOH-muh in SY-too)
Abnormal cells are found on the inside lining of the urethra. These abnormal cells may become cancer and spread into nearby normal tissue.

stage 0 vaginal carcinoma in situ (...VA-jih-nul KAR-sih-NOH-muh in SY-too)
Abnormal cells are found in tissue lining the inside of the vagina (birth canal). These abnormal cells may become cancer and spread into nearby normal tissue.

stage 0 vulvar carcinoma in situ (... KAR-sih-NOH-muh in SY-too)
Abnormal cells are found on the surface of the vulvar skin. These abnormal cells may become cancer and spread into nearby normal tissue.

stage 1 neuroblastoma (NUR-oh-blas-TOH-muh)
Tumor is only found in one area; all of the tumor that can be seen is completely removed during surgery.

stage 2 neuroblastoma (NUR-oh-blas-TOH-muh)
Stage 2 is divided into stages 2A and 2B. In stage 2A, the tumor is in one area only and not all of the tumor that can be seen can be completely removed during surgery. In stage 2B, the tumor is in one area only and all of the tumor that can be seen may be completely removed during surgery, but cancer cells are found in nearby lymph nodes.

stage 3 neuroblastoma (NUR-oh-blas-TOH-muh)
In stage 3 neuroblastoma, the tumor (1) cannot be completely removed during surgery and has spread from one side of the body to the other side and may also have spread to nearby lymph nodes; or (2) is in one area of one side of the body only, but has spread to lymph nodes on the other side of the body; or (3) is in the middle of the body and has spread to tissues or lymph nodes on both sides of the body, and the tumor cannot be removed by surgery.

stage 4 neuroblastoma (NUR-oh-blas-TOH-muh)
Stage 4 neuroblastoma is divided into stages 4 and 4S. In stage 4, the tumor has spread to distant lymph nodes, the skin, and/or other parts of the body. In stage 4S, (1) the child is younger than 1 year; and (2) the cancer has spread to the skin, liver, and/or bone marrow; and (3) the tumor is in one area only and all of the tumor that can be seen may be completely removed during surgery; and/or (4) cancer cells may be found in the lymph nodes near the tumor.

stage A1 prostate cancer
Cancer is found in the prostate only. It cannot be felt during a digital rectal exam and is not visible by imaging. It is usually found accidentally during surgery for other reasons, such as benign prostatic hyperplasia (a condition in which an overgrowth of prostate tissue occurs). Also called stage I prostate cancer.

stage A2 prostate cancer
Cancer is more advanced than in stage I, but has not spread outside the prostate. Also called stage II prostate cancer, stage B1 prostate cancer, and stage B2 prostate cancer.

stage B1 prostate cancer
Cancer is more advanced than in stage I, but has not spread outside the prostate. Also called stage II prostate cancer, stage A2 prostate cancer, and stage B2 prostate cancer.

stage B2 prostate cancer
Cancer is more advanced than in stage I, but has not spread outside the prostate. Also called stage II prostate cancer, stage A2 prostate cancer, and stage B1 prostate cancer.

stage C prostate cancer
Cancer has spread beyond the outer layer of the prostate to nearby tissues and may be found in the seminal vesicles (glands that help produce semen). Also called stage III prostate cancer.

stage D1 prostate cancer
Cancer has metastasized (spread) to lymph nodes near or far from the prostate, or to other parts of the body, such as the bladder, rectum, bones, liver, or lungs. Metastatic prostate cancer often spreads to the bones. Also called stage IV prostate cancer and stage D2 prostate cancer.

stage D2 prostate cancer
Cancer has metastasized (spread) to lymph nodes near or far from the prostate, or to other parts of the body, such as the bladder, rectum, bones, liver, or lungs. Metastatic prostate cancer often spreads to the bones. Also called stage IV prostate cancer and stage D1 prostate cancer.

stage I adrenocortical cancer
Cancer that is smaller than 5 centimeters (smaller than 2 inches) and has not spread into tissues around the adrenal gland.

stage I adult Hodgkin lymphoma (... HOJ-kin lim-FOH-muh)
Stage I is divided into stage I and stage IE. In stage I, cancer is found in a single group of lymph nodes. In stage IE, cancer is found in one area or organ other than the lymph nodes.

stage I adult non-Hodgkin lymphoma (... non-HOJ-kin lim-FOH-muh)
Stage I is divided into stage I and stage IE. In stage I, cancer is found in a single lymph node area. In stage IE, cancer is found in an organ or tissue other than the lymph nodes.

stage I adult primary liver cancer
There is one tumor and it has not spread to nearby blood vessels.

stage I AIDS-related lymphoma
Stage I AIDS-related lymphoma is divided into stages I and IE. In stage I, cancer is found in one group of lymph nodes. In stage IE, cancer is found in one area of one organ or tissue that is not part of the lymph system.

stage I anal cancer
The tumor is no larger than 2 centimeters.

stage I bladder cancer
Cancer has spread to the connective tissue layer below the inner lining of the bladder.

stage I breast cancer
The tumor is 2 centimeters or smaller and has not spread outside the breast.

stage I cancer of the uterus
Cancer found in only the main part of the uterus, not the cervix.

stage I cancer of the vulva
Cancer found in the vulva only or the space between the opening of the rectum and the vagina (perineum). The tumor is 2 centimeters (about 1 inch) or smaller.

stage I cervical cancer (... SER-vih-kul KAN-ser)
Cancer is found in the cervix only. Stage I is divided into stages IA and IB, based on the amount of cancer that is found. In stage IA, a very small amount of cancer that can only be seen with a microscope is found in the tissues of the cervix. The cancer is not deeper than 5 millimeters and not wider than 7 millimeters. In stage IB, the cancer is still within the cervix and either (1) can only be seen with a microscope and is deeper than 5 millimeters or wider than 7 millimeters; or (2) can be seen without a microscope and may be larger than 4 centimeters.

stage I childhood Hodgkin lymphoma (...HOJ-kin lim-FOH-muh)
Stage I is divided into stages I and IE. In stage I, cancer is found in only one group of lymph nodes. In stage IE, cancer is found in only one group of lymph nodes and has spread to a nearby organ or tissue that is not part of the lymph system.

stage I childhood liver cancer
All of the cancer was removed by surgery.

stage I childhood non-Hodgkin lymphoma (... non-HOJ-kin lim-FOH-muh)
Cancer is found in a single area or lymph node outside of the abdomen or chest.

stage I chronic lymphocytic leukemia
There are too many lymphocytes in the blood and the lymph nodes are larger than normal.

stage I colorectal cancer (...KOH-loh-REK-tul KAN-ser)
Cancer has spread beyond the innermost lining of the colon and/or rectum to the second and third layers and involves the inside wall of the colon and/or rectum, but it has not spread to the outer wall or outside the colon and/or rectum. Also called Dukes A colorectal cancer.

stage I cutaneous T-cell lymphoma
May be either of the following: (1) stage IA cancer affecting less than 10% of the skin's surface and appearing as red, dry, scaly patches; (2) stage IB cancer affecting 10% or more of the skin's surface and appearing as red, dry, scaly patches.

stage I endometrial cancer
Cancer is found in the uterus only. Stage I is divided into stage IA, IB, and IC, based on how far the disease has spread. In stage IA, cancer is in the endometrium only; in stage IB, cancer has spread into the inner half of the myometrium (muscle layer of the uterus); in stage IC, cancer has spread into the outer half of the myometrium.

stage I esophageal cancer (...ee-SAH-fuh-JEE-ul KAN-ser)
Cancer has spread beyond the innermost layer of tissue to the next layer of tissue in the wall of the esophagus.

stage I extrahepatic bile duct cancer (EK-struh-hih-PA-tik bile dukt)
Stage I is divided into stage IA and IB. In stage IA, cancer is found only in the bile duct. In stage IB, cancer has spread through the wall of the bile duct.

stage I gastric cancer
Stage I is divided into stage IA and stage IB, depending on where the cancer has spread. In stage IA, cancer has spread completely through the mucosal (innermost) layer of the stomach wall. In stage IB, cancer has spread completely through the mucosal (innermost) layer of the stomach wall and is found in up to 6 lymph nodes near the tumor, or has spread to the muscularis (middle) layer of the stomach wall.

stage I hypopharyngeal cancer
The tumor is found only in one area of the hypopharynx and is 2 centimeters or smaller.

stage I kidney cancer
The tumor is 7 centimeters or smaller and is found in the kidney only. Also called stage I renal cell cancer.

stage I laryngeal cancer (...luh-RIN-jul...)
Cancer is found only in the area where it started. Stage I laryngeal cancer depends on where cancer is found in the larynx. If it started in the supraglottis, then cancer is in one area of the supraglottis only and the vocal cords can move normally. If it started in the glottis, then cancer is in one or both vocal cords and the vocal cords can move normally. If it started in the subglottis, then cancer is in the subglottis only.

stage I lip and oral cavity cancer
Cancer that is no larger than 2 centimeters (about 1 inch) and has not spread to nearby lymph nodes.

stage I malignant mesothelioma (...muh-LIG-nunt meh-zuh-thee-lee-OH-muh)
Cancer is found in the lining of the chest wall and may also be found in the lining of the lung, the lining of the diaphragm (the thin muscle below the lungs and heart that separates the chest from the abdomen), or the lining of the sac that covers the heart on the same side of the chest. Also called localized malignant mesothelioma.

stage I melanoma
Stage I is divided into stages IA and IB. In stage IA, the tumor is not more than 1 millimeter thick, with no ulceration. The tumor is in the epidermis (outer layer of skin) and upper layer of the dermis (inner layer of skin). In stage IB, the tumor is either not more than 1 millimeter thick, with ulceration, and may have spread into the dermis or the tissue below the skin; or 1 to 2 millimeters thick, with no ulceration.

stage I Merkel cell carcinoma (... MER-kul ...)
Stage I Merkel cell carcinoma is divided into stages IA and IB. In stage IA, the cancer is smaller than 2 centimeters in diameter and has not spread to lymph nodes or other parts of the body. In stage IB, the cancer is 2 centimeters or larger in diameter and has not spread to lymph nodes or other parts of the body.

stage I multiple myeloma (... MUL-tih-pul MY-eh-LOH-muh)
Relatively few cancer cells have spread throughout the body. There may be no symptoms of disease.

stage I mycosis fungoides and the Sézary syndrome (...my-KOH-sis fun-GOY-deez...)
Stage I is divided into stages IA and IB. In stage IA, less than 10% of the skin surface is covered with patches and/or plaques (areas of abnormal tissue). In stage IB, 10% or more of the skin surface is covered with patches and/or plaques. Stage I may also be classified based on how many abnormal lymphocytes (white blood cells) are found in the blood.

stage I nasopharyngeal cancer (...NAY-zoh-fuh-RIN-jee-ul KAN-ser)
Cancer is found in the nasopharynx (the upper part of the throat behind the nose) only.

stage I non-small cell lung cancer
Cancer is in the lung only. Stage I is divided into stages IA and IB based on the size or location of the tumor.

stage I oropharynx cancer
Cancer that is no larger than 2 centimeters (about 0.75 inch) and is confined to the oropharynx.

stage I ovarian cancer (...oh-VAYR-ee-un KAN-ser)
Cancer is found in one or both of the ovaries and has not spread. Stage I is divided into stage IA, stage IB, and stage IC. In stage IA, cancer is found in a single ovary. In stage IB, cancer is found in both ovaries. In stage IC, cancer is found in one or both ovaries and one of the following is true: cancer is found on the outside surface of one or both ovaries; the capsule (outer covering) of the tumor has ruptured (broken open); or, cancer cells are found in fluid from the peritoneal cavity (the body cavity that contains most of the organs in the abdomen).

stage I ovarian germ cell tumor (...oh-VAYR-ee-un jerm sel TOO-mer)
Stage I ovarian germ cell tumor is divided into stages IA, IB, and IC. In stage IA, cancer is found in a single ovary. In stage IB, cancer is found in both ovaries. In stage IC, cancer is found in one or both ovaries and one of the following is true: cancer is found on the outside surface of one or both ovaries; or the capsule (outer covering) of the tumor has ruptured (broken open); or cancer cells are found in the fluid of the peritoneal cavity (the body cavity that contains most of the organs in the abdomen) or in washings of the peritoneum (the tissue that lines the peritoneal cavity).

stage I pancreatic cancer
Cancer is found in the pancreas only. Stage I is divided into stage IA and stage IB based on tumor size. In stage IA, the tumor is no larger than 2 centimeters and in stage IB, the tumor is larger than 2 centimeters.

stage I penile cancer (... PEE-nile ...)
Cancer is found in connective tissue just under the skin of the penis.

stage I prostate cancer (...PROS-tayt KAN-ser)
Cancer is found in the prostate only. It cannot be felt during a digital rectal exam and is not visible by imaging. It is usually found accidentally during surgery for other reasons, such as benign prostatic hyperplasia (a condition in which an overgrowth of prostate tissue occurs). Also called stage A1 prostate cancer.

stage I renal cell cancer (REE-nul)
The tumor is 7 centimeters or smaller and is found in the kidney only. Also called stage I kidney cancer.

stage I skin cancer
The tumor is no larger than 2 centimeters.

stage I testicular cancer (...tes-TIH-kyuh-ler KAN-ser)
Stage I is divided into stage IA, stage IB, and stage IS, and is determined after a radical inguinal orchiectomy (surgery to remove the testicle) is done. In stage IA, cancer is in the testicle and epididymis and may have spread to the inner layer of the membrane surrounding the testicle; all tumor marker levels are normal. In stage IB, the cancer is in the testicle and the epididymis and has spread to the blood or lymph vessels in the testicle; or has spread to the outer layer of the membrane surrounding the testicle; or is in the spermatic cord or the scrotum and may be in the blood or lymph vessels of the testicle; all tumor marker levels are normal. In stage IS, cancer is found anywhere within the testicle, spermatic cord, or the scrotum, and either all tumor marker levels are slightly above normal or one or more tumor marker levels are moderately above normal or high.

stage I transitional cell cancer of the renal pelvis and ureter (... tran-ZIH-shuh-nul sel KAN-ser ... REE-nul PEL-vus and YER-eh-ter)
Cancer has spread through the lining of the renal pelvis and/or ureter, into the layer of connective tissue.

stage I uterine sarcoma (…YOO-teh-rin sar-KOH-muh)
Stage I uterine sarcoma is divided into stages IA, IB, and IC based on how far the cancer has spread into the wall of the uterus. In stage IA, cancer is in the endometrium only. In stage IB, cancer has spread into the inner half of the myometrium (muscle layer of the uterus). In stage IC, cancer has spread to the outer half of the myometrium.

stage I Wilms tumor
The tumor was completely removed by surgery and all of the following are true: (1) cancer was found only in the kidney and did not spread to blood vessels of the kidney; (2) the outer layer of the kidney did not break open; (3) the tumor did not break open; (4) a biopsy of the tumor was not done; and (5) no cancer cells were found at the edges of the area where the tumor was removed.

stage IA gallbladder cancer
Stage I gallbladder cancer is divided into stages IA and IB. In stage IA, cancer has spread beyond the innermost (mucosal) layer to the connective tissue or to the muscle layer.

stage IA soft tissue sarcoma
Cancer in which the cells look very much like normal cells. The cancer is smaller than 5 centimeters (about 2 inches) and has not spread to lymph nodes or other parts of the body.

stage IB gallbladder cancer
Stage I gallbladder cancer is divided into stages IA and IB. In stage IB, cancer has spread beyond the muscle layer to the connective tissue around the muscle.

stage IB soft tissue sarcoma
Cancer in which the cells look somewhat different from normal cells. The cancer is larger than 5 centimeters (about 2 inches) and has not spread to lymph nodes or other parts of the body.

stage II adrenocortical cancer
Cancer that is larger than 5 centimeters (about 2 inches) and has not spread into tissues around the adrenal gland.

stage II adult Hodgkin lymphoma (... HOJ-kin lim-FOH-muh)
Stage II is divided into stage II and stage IIE. In stage II, cancer is found in two or more lymph node groups on the same side of the diaphragm (the thin muscle below the lungs that helps breathing and separates the chest from the abdomen). In stage IIE, cancer is found in one area or organ other than the lymph nodes and in the lymph nodes near that area or organ, and may have spread to other lymph node groups on the same side of the diaphragm.

stage II adult non-Hodgkin lymphoma (... non-HOJ-kin lim-FOH-muh)
Stage II is divided into stage II and stage IIE. In stage II, cancer is found in two or more lymph node areas on the same side of the diaphragm. In stage IIE, cancer is found in an organ or tissue other than the lymph nodes and may have spread to one or more lymph nodes on the same side of the diaphragm.

stage II adult primary liver cancer
There is either (1) one tumor that has spread to nearby blood vessels; or (2) there is more than one tumor, none of which is larger than 5 centimeters.

stage II AIDS-related lymphoma
Stage II AIDS-related lymphoma is divided into stages II and IIE. In stage II, cancer is found in two or more lymph node groups on the same side of the diaphragm (the muscle below the lungs and heart that separates the chest from the abdomen). In stage IIE, cancer is found in one area of one organ or tissue that is not part of the lymph system and in nearby lymph nodes. Cancer may also be found in other lymph node groups on the same side of the diaphragm.

stage II anal cancer
The tumor is larger than 2 centimeters.

stage II bladder cancer
Cancer has spread to either the inner layer or outer layer of the muscle wall of the bladder.

stage II breast cancer
Stage II is divided into stage IIA and stage IIB based on tumor size and whether it has spread to the axillary lymph nodes (the lymph nodes under the arm). In stage IIA, the cancer is either no larger than 2 centimeters and has spread to the axillary lymph nodes, or between 2 and 5 centimeters but has not spread to the axillary lymph nodes. In stage IIB, the cancer is either between 2 and 5 centimeters and has spread to the axillary lymph nodes, or larger than 5 centimeters but has not spread to the axillary lymph nodes.

stage II cancer of the uterus
Cancer that has spread to the cervix.

stage II cancer of the vulva
Cancer that is found in the vulva, the space between the opening of the rectum and the vagina (perineum), or both. The tumor is larger than 2 centimeters (larger than 1 inch).

stage II cervical cancer (... SER-vih-kul KAN-ser)
Cancer has spread beyond the cervix but not to the pelvic wall (the tissues that line the part of the body between the hips). Stage II is divided into stages IIA and IIB, based on how far the cancer has spread. In stage IIA, cancer has spread to the upper two thirds of the vagina but not to tissues around the uterus. In stage IIB, cancer has spread to the upper two thirds of the vagina and to the tissues around the uterus.

stage II childhood Hodgkin lymphoma (...HOJ-kin lim-FOH-muh)
Stage II is divided into stages II and IIE. In stage II, cancer is found in two or more lymph node groups on the same side of the diaphragm (the thin muscle below the lungs and heart that separates the chest from the abdomen). In stage IIE, cancer is found in two or more lymph node groups on the same side of the diaphragm and has spread from one of those lymph nodes to a nearby organ or tissue that is not part of the lymph system.

stage II childhood liver cancer
All of the cancer was removed by surgery, except for a small amount of cancer that can be seen only with a microscope, or tumor cells that may have spilled into the abdomen during surgery.

stage II childhood non-Hodgkin lymphoma (... non-HOJ-kin lim-FOH-muh)
Cancer is found (1) in only one area and in the lymph nodes around it; or (2) in two or more areas or lymph nodes on one side of the diaphragm (the thin muscle under the lungs that divides the chest and abdominal cavity and helps with breathing); or (3) to have started in the stomach or intestines and has been completely removed by surgery, and lymph nodes in the area may or may not contain cancer.

stage II chronic lymphocytic leukemia
There are too many lymphocytes in the blood, the liver or spleen is larger than normal, and the lymph nodes may be larger than normal.

stage II colorectal cancer (...KOH-loh-REK-tul KAN-ser)
Cancer has spread outside the colon and/or rectum to nearby tissue, but it has not gone into the lymph nodes. Also called Dukes B colorectal cancer.

stage II cutaneous T-cell lymphoma
Stage II cutaneous T-cell lymphoma may be either of the following: (1) stage IIA, in which the skin has red, dry, scaly patches but no tumors, and lymph nodes are enlarged but do not contain cancer cells; (2) stage IIB, in which tumors are found on the skin, and lymph nodes are enlarged but do not contain cancer cells.

stage II endometrial cancer
Cancer has spread from the uterus to the cervix, but not beyond the cervix. Stage II is divided into stage IIA and IIB, based on how far the cancer has spread into the cervix. In stage IIA, cancer has spread to the glands where the cervix and uterus meet. In stage IIB, cancer has spread into the connective tissue of the cervix.

stage II esophageal cancer (...ee-SAH-fuh-JEE-ul KAN-ser)
Stage II is divided into stage IIA and stage IIB, depending on where the cancer has spread. In stage IIA, cancer has spread to the layer of esophageal muscle or to the outer wall of the esophagus. In stage IIB, cancer may have spread to any of the first three layers of the esophagus and to nearby lymph nodes.

stage II extrahepatic bile duct cancer (EK-struh-hih-PA-tik bile dukt)
Stage II is divided into stage IIA and IIB. In stage IIA, cancer has spread to the liver, gallbladder, pancreas, and/or to either the right or left branches of the hepatic artery or of the portal vein (major blood vessels that carry blood to the liver). In stage IIB, cancer has spread to nearby lymph nodes and (1) is found in the bile duct; or (2) has spread through the wall of the bile duct; or (3) has spread to the liver, gallbladder, pancreas, and/or the right or left branches of the hepatic artery or portal vein.

stage II gastric cancer
Cancer has spread (1) completely through the mucosal (innermost) layer of the stomach wall and is found in 7 to 15 lymph nodes near the tumor, or (2) to the muscularis (middle) layer of the stomach wall and is found in up to 6 lymph nodes near the tumor, or (3) to the serosal (outermost) layer of the stomach wall but not to lymph nodes or other organs.

stage II hypopharyngeal cancer
The tumor is either (1) larger than 2 centimeters but not larger than 4 centimeters and has not spread to the larynx (voice box); or (2) found in more than one area of the hypopharynx or in nearby tissues.

stage II kidney cancer
The tumor is larger than 7 centimeters and is found in the kidney only. Also called stage II renal cell cancer.

stage II laryngeal cancer (...luh-RIN-jul...)
Cancer that is found in the larynx. The exact definition of stage II depends on where the cancer started. If it started in the supraglottis, then cancer is in more than one area of the supraglottis or glottis or region near the supraglottis. If it started in the glottis, then cancer has spread to the supraglottis and/or the subglottis, and/or the vocal cords do not move normally. If it started in the subglottis, then cancer has spread to the vocal cords, which may not move normally.

stage II lip and oral cavity cancer
Cancer that is larger than 2 centimeters (about 1 inch) but not larger than 4 centimeters (about 2 inches) and has not spread to lymph nodes.

stage II malignant mesothelioma (...muh-LIG-nunt meh-zuh-thee-lee-OH-muh)
Cancer is found in the lining of the chest wall and the lymph nodes on the same side of the chest. Cancer may also be found in the lining of the lung, the lining of the diaphragm (the thin muscle below the lungs and heart that separates the chest from the abdomen), or the lining of the sac that covers the heart on the same side of the chest. Stage II malignant mesothelioma is advanced malignant mesothelioma.

stage II melanoma
Stage II is divided into stages IIA, IIB, and IIC. In stage IIA, the tumor is either 1 to 2 millimeters thick, with ulceration; or 2 to 4 millimeters thick, with no ulceration. In stage IIB, the tumor is either 2 to 4 millimeters thick, with ulceration; or more than 4 millimeters thick, with no ulceration. In stage IIC, the tumor is more than 4 millimeters thick, with ulceration.

stage II Merkel cell carcinoma (... MER-kul ...)
The cancer may be any size and has spread to nearby lymph nodes, but has not spread to other parts of the body.

stage II multiple myeloma (... MUL-tih-pul MY-eh-LOH-muh)
Cancer in which a moderate number of cancer cells have spread throughout the body.

stage II mycosis fungoides and the Sézary syndrome (...my-KOH-sis fun-GOY-deez...)
Stage II is divided into stages IIA and IIB. In stage IIA, any amount of the skin surface is covered with patches and/or plaques (areas of abnormal tissue). Lymph nodes are enlarged but cancer has not spread to them. In stage IIB, one or more tumors (lumps of malignant cells) are found on the skin. Lymph nodes may be enlarged but cancer has not spread to them. Stage II may also be classified based on how many abnormal lymphocytes (white blood cells) are found in the blood.

stage II nasopharyngeal cancer (...NAY-zoh-fuh-RIN-jee-ul KAN-ser)
Stage II is divided into stage IIA and stage IIB. In stage IIA, cancer has spread from the nasopharynx (the upper part of the throat behind the nose) to the oropharynx (the middle part of the throat that includes the soft palate, the base of the tongue, and the tonsils), and/or to the nasal cavity. In stage IIB, cancer is found in the nasopharynx and has spread to lymph nodes on one side of the neck, or has spread to the area surrounding the nasopharynx and may have spread to lymph nodes on one side of the neck.

stage II non-small cell lung cancer
Cancer has spread to nearby lymph nodes or to the chest wall, the diaphragm, the mediastinal pleura (the thin membrane that covers the outside of the lungs in the area near the heart), or the parietal pericardium (the outer layer of tissue that surrounds the heart). Stage II is divided into stage IIA and stage IIB based on the size of the tumor and whether it has spread to the lymph nodes.

stage II oropharynx cancer
Tumor that is between 2 and 4 centimeters (0.75 and 1.5 inches) and is confined to the oropharynx.

stage II ovarian cancer (...oh-VAYR-ee-un KAN-ser)
Cancer is found in one or both ovaries and has spread into other areas of the pelvis. Stage II is divided into stage IIA, stage IIB, and stage IIC. In stage IIA, cancer has spread to the uterus and/or the fallopian tubes. In stage IIB, cancer has spread to other tissues within the pelvis. In stage IIC, cancer has spread to the uterus and/or fallopian tubes and/or other tissue within the pelvis and cancer cells are found in fluid from the peritoneal cavity (the body cavity that contains most of the organs in the abdomen).

stage II ovarian germ cell tumor (...oh-VAYR-ee-un jerm sel TOO-mer)
Stage II ovarian germ cell tumor is divided into stages IIA, IIB, and IIC. In stage IIA, cancer has spread to the uterus and/or the fallopian tubes (the long slender tubes through which eggs pass from the ovaries to the uterus). In stage IIB, cancer has spread to other tissue within the pelvis. In stage IIC, cancer has spread to the uterus and/or fallopian tubes and/or other tissue within the pelvis and cancer cells are found in the fluid of the peritoneal cavity (the body cavity that contains most of the organs in the abdomen) or in washings of the peritoneum (the tissue that lines the peritoneal cavity).

stage II pancreatic cancer
Stage II is divided into stages IIA and IIB, based on where the cancer has spread. In stage IIA, cancer has spread to nearby tissue and organs but has not spread to nearby lymph nodes. In stage IIB, cancer has spread to nearby lymph nodes and may have spread to nearby tissue and organs.

stage II penile cancer (... PEE-nile ...)
Cancer has spread to connective tissue just under the skin of the penis and to one lymph node in the groin; or cancer has spread to erectile tissue (spongy tissue that fills with blood to make an erection) and may have spread to one lymph node in the groin.

stage II prostate cancer (...PROS-tayt KAN-ser)
Cancer is more advanced than in stage I, but has not spread outside the prostate. Also called stage A2 prostate cancer, stage B1 prostate cancer, and stage B2 prostate cancer.

stage II renal cell cancer (REE-nul)
The tumor is larger than 7 centimeters and is found in the kidney only. Also called stage II kidney cancer.

stage II skin cancer
The tumor is larger than 2 centimeters.

stage II testicular cancer (...tes-TIH-kyuh-ler KAN-ser)
Stage II is divided into stage IIA, stage IIB, and stage IIC, and is determined after a radical inguinal orchiectomy (surgery to remove the testicle) is done. In stage IIA, the cancer is anywhere within the testicle, spermatic cord, or scrotum; and has spread to up to 5 lymph nodes in the abdomen (none larger than 2 centimeters). In stage IIB, the cancer is anywhere within the testicle, spermatic cord, or scrotum; has spread to up to 5 lymph nodes in the abdomen (at least one of the lymph nodes is larger than 2 centimeters, but none is larger than 5 centimeters) or has spread to more than 5 lymph nodes (the lymph nodes are not larger than 5 centimeters). In stage IIC, the cancer is anywhere within the testicle, spermatic cord, or scrotum; and has spread to a lymph node in the abdomen that is larger than 5 centimeters. All tumor marker levels are normal or slightly above normal.

stage II transitional cell cancer of the renal pelvis and ureter (... tran-ZIH-shuh-nul sel KAN-ser ... REE-nul PEL-vus and YER-eh-ter)
Cancer has spread through the layer of connective tissue to the muscle layer of the renal pelvis and/or ureter.

stage II uterine sarcoma (…YOO-teh-rin sar-KOH-muh)
Stage II uterine sarcoma is divided into stages IIA and IIB based on how far the cancer has spread into the cervix. In stage IIA, cancer has spread to the glands where the cervix and uterus meet. In stage IIB, cancer has spread into the connective tissue of the cervix.

stage II Wilms tumor
Cancer spread out of the kidney to nearby soft tissue or to blood vessels of the kidney and was completely removed by surgery. No cancer cells were found at the edges of the area where the cancer was removed.

stage IIA breast cancer
Stage II breast cancer is divided into stages IIA and IIB. In stage IIA, (1) no tumor is found in the breast, but cancer is found in the axillary (under the arm) lymph nodes; or (2) the tumor is 2 centimeters or smaller and has spread to the axillary lymph nodes; or (3) the tumor is larger than 2 centimeters but not larger than 5 centimeters and has not spread to the axillary lymph nodes.

stage IIA gallbladder cancer
Stage II gallbladder cancer is divided into stages IIA and IIB. In stage IIA, cancer has spread beyond the tissue that covers the gallbladder and/or to the liver and/or to one nearby organ, such as the stomach, small intestine, colon, pancreas, or bile ducts outside the liver.

stage IIA soft tissue sarcoma
The cancer cells look somewhat different from normal cells. The cancer is larger than 5 centimeters (about 2 inches) and has not spread to lymph nodes or other parts of the body.

stage IIB breast cancer
Stage II breast cancer is divided into stages IIA and IIB. In stage IIB, (1) the tumor is larger than 2 centimeters but not larger than 5 centimeters and has spread to the axillary (under the arm) lymph nodes; or (2) the tumor is larger than 5 centimeters but has not spread to the axillary lymph nodes.

stage IIB gallbladder cancer
Stage II gallbladder cancer is divided into stages IIA and IIB. In stage IIB, cancer has spread in one of the following ways: (1) beyond the innermost layer to the connective tissue and to nearby lymph nodes; or (2) to the muscle layer and nearby lymph nodes; or (3) beyond the muscle layer to the connective tissue around the muscle and nearby lymph nodes; or (4) through the tissue that covers the gallbladder and/or to the liver and/or to one nearby organ, such as the stomach, small intestine, colon, pancreas, or bile ducts outside the liver, and to nearby lymph nodes.

stage IIB melanoma
Melanoma in which the tumor is more than 4 millimeters thick. It has spread through the lower part of the inner layer of skin (dermis) and into subcutaneous (under the skin) tissue, but not to nearby lymph nodes.

stage IIB soft tissue sarcoma
The cancer cells look very different from normal cells. The cancer is smaller than 5 centimeters (about 2 inches) and has not spread to lymph nodes or other parts of the body.

stage IIC soft tissue sarcoma
The cancer cells look very different from normal cells. The cancer is larger than 5 centimeters (about 2 inches) and has not spread to lymph nodes or other parts of the body.

stage III adrenocortical cancer
The cancer has spread into tissues around the adrenal gland or has spread to the lymph nodes around the adrenal gland.

stage III adult Hodgkin lymphoma (... HOJ-kin lim-FOH-muh)
Stage III is divided into stage III, stage IIIE, stage IIIS, and stage IIIS+E. In stage III, cancer is found in lymph node groups on both sides of the diaphragm (the thin muscle below the lungs that helps breathing and separates the chest from the abdomen). In stage IIIE, cancer is found in lymph node groups on both sides of the diaphragm and in a nearby area or organ other than the lymph nodes. In stage IIIS, cancer is found in lymph node groups on both sides of the diaphragm and in the spleen. In stage IIIE+S, cancer is found in lymph node groups on both sides of the diaphragm, in a nearby area or organ, and in the spleen. Stage III is also divided into stage III(1) and stage III(2). In stage III(1), cancer is limited to the upper abdomen above the renal vein. In stage III(2), cancer is found in lymph nodes in the pelvis and/or near the heart.

stage III adult non-Hodgkin lymphoma (... non-HOJ-kin lim-FOH-muh)
Stage III is divided into stage III, stage IIIE, stage IIIS, and stage IIIS+E. In stage III, cancer is found in lymph node areas on both sides of the diaphragm. In stage IIIE, cancer is found in lymph node areas on both sides of the diaphragm and in a nearby organ or tissue other than the lymph nodes. In stage IIIS, cancer is found in lymph node areas on both sides of the diaphragm and in the spleen. In stage IIIS+E, cancer is found in lymph node areas on both sides of the diaphragm, in a nearby organ or tissue, and in the spleen.

stage III AIDS-related lymphoma
Stage III AIDS-related lymphoma is divided into stages III, IIIE, IIIS, and IIIS+E. In stage III, cancer is found in lymph node groups on both sides of the diaphragm (the muscle below the lungs and heart that separates the chest from the abdomen). In stage IIIE, cancer is found in lymph node groups on both sides of the diaphragm and in one area of an organ or tissue that is not part of the lymph system. In stage IIIS, cancer is found in lymph node groups on both sides of the diaphragm and in the spleen. In stage IIIS+E, cancer is found in lymph node groups on both sides of the diaphragm, in the spleen, and in one area of an organ or tissue that is not part of the lymph system.

stage III anal cancer
Stage III anal cancer is divided into stage IIIA and IIIB. Stage IIIA anal cancer has spread to the lymph nodes around the rectum or to nearby organs such as the vagina or bladder. Stage IIIB cancer has spread to the lymph nodes in the middle of the abdomen or in the groin, or the cancer has spread to both nearby organs and the lymph nodes around the rectum.

stage III bladder cancer
Cancer has spread from the bladder to the fatty layer of tissue surrounding it, and may have spread to the reproductive organs (prostate, uterus, vagina).

stage III breast cancer
Stage III is divided into stages IIIA and IIIB. In stage IIIA breast cancer, the cancer (1) is smaller than 5 centimeters (2 inches) and has spread to the lymph nodes in the armpit, which have grown into each other or into other structures and are attached to them; or (2) is larger than 5 centimeters and has spread to the lymph nodes in the armpit. In stage IIIB breast cancer, the cancer (1) has spread to tissues near the breast (skin, chest wall, including the ribs and the muscles in the chest); or (2) has spread to lymph nodes inside the chest wall along the breast bone.

stage III cancer of the uterus
Cancer cells have spread outside the uterus to the vagina and/or lymph nodes in the pelvis but have not spread outside the pelvis.

stage III cancer of the vulva
Cancer is found in the vulva, perineum, or both. The cancer has also spread to nearby tissues such as the lower part of the urethra (the tube through which urine passes), the vagina, and the anus (the opening of the rectum); to nearby lymph nodes; or both.

stage III cervical cancer (... SER-vih-kul KAN-ser)
Cancer has spread to the lower third of the vagina and may have spread to the pelvic wall (the tissues that line the part of the body between the hips), and nearby lymph nodes. Stage III is divided into stages IIIA and IIIB, based on now far the cancer has spread. In stage IIIA, cancer has spread to the lower third of the vagina but not to the pelvic wall. In stage IIIB, cancer has spread to the pelvic wall and/or the tumor has become large enough to block the ureters (the tubes that connect the kidneys to the bladder). This blockage can cause the kidneys to enlarge or stop working. Cancer may also have spread to lymph nodes in the pelvis.

stage III childhood Hodgkin lymphoma (...HOJ-kin lim-FOH-muh)
Stage III is divided into stages III, IIIE, IIIS, and IIIE+S. In stage III, cancer is found in lymph node groups on both sides of the diaphragm (the thin muscle below the lungs and heart that separates the chest from the abdomen). In stage IIIE, cancer is found in lymph node groups on both sides of the diaphragm and has spread from one of these lymph nodes to a nearby organ or tissue that is not part of the lymph system. In stage IIIS, cancer is found in lymph node groups on both sides of the diaphragm and in the spleen. In stage IIIE+S, cancer is found in lymph node groups on both sides of the diaphragm and in the spleen, and has spread from one of these lymph node groups to a nearby organ or tissue that is not part of the lymph system.

stage III childhood liver cancer
Either (1) the tumor cannot be removed by surgery; or (2) cancer that can be seen without a microscope remains after surgery; or (3) the cancer has spread to nearby lymph nodes.

stage III childhood non-Hodgkin lymphoma (... non-HOJ-kin lim-FOH-muh)
Cancer is found (1) in areas or lymph nodes on both sides of the diaphragm (the thin muscle under the lungs that divides the chest and abdominal cavity and helps with breathing); or (2) to have started in the chest; or (3) in more than one place in the abdomen; or (4) in the area around the spine.

stage III chronic lymphocytic leukemia
There are too many lymphocytes in the blood and there are too few red blood cells. The lymph nodes, liver, or spleen may be larger than normal.

stage III colorectal cancer (...KOH-loh-REK-tul KAN-ser)
Tumor cells have spread to organs and lymph nodes near the colon/rectum. Also called Dukes C colorectal cancer.

stage III cutaneous T-cell lymphoma
Nearly all of the skin is red, dry, and scaly; lymph nodes are either normal or enlarged but do not contain cancer cells.

stage III endometrial cancer
Cancer has spread beyond the uterus and cervix, but has not spread beyond the pelvis. Stage III is divided into stage IIIA, IIIB, and IIIC, based on how far the cancer has spread within the pelvis. In stage IIIA, cancer has spread to (1) the outermost layer of the uterus; and/or (2) tissue just beyond the uterus; and/or (3) the peritoneum (tissue that lines the abdominal wall and organs). In stage IIIB, cancer has spread beyond the uterus and cervix, into the vagina. In stage IIIC, cancer has spread to lymph nodes near the uterus.

stage III esophageal cancer (...ee-SAH-fuh-JEE-ul KAN-ser)
Cancer has spread to the outer wall of the esophagus and may have spread to tissues or lymph nodes near the esophagus.

stage III extrahepatic bile duct cancer (EK-struh-hih-PA-tik bile dukt)
Cancer has spread to (1) the portal vein (blood vessel that carries blood to the liver) or to both branches; or (2) the hepatic artery (blood vessel that carries blood to the liver); or (3) other nearby organs or tissues, such as the colon, stomach, small intestine, or abdominal wall. Cancer may also have spread to nearby lymph nodes.

stage III gallbladder cancer
In stage III, cancer has spread to a main blood vessel in the liver or to nearby organs and may have spread to nearby lymph nodes.

stage III gastric cancer
Stage III is divided into stage IIIA and stage IIIB depending on where the cancer has spread. In stage IIIA, cancer has spread to (1) the muscularis (middle) layer of the stomach wall and is found in 7 to 15 lymph nodes near the tumor, or (2) the serosal (outermost) layer of the stomach wall and is found in 1 to 6 lymph nodes near the tumor, or (3) to organs next to the stomach but not to lymph nodes or other parts of the body. In stage IIIB, cancer has spread to the serosal (outermost) layer of the stomach wall and is found in 7 to 15 lymph nodes near the tumor.

stage III hypopharyngeal cancer
In stage III hypopharyngeal cancer the tumor is (1) found only in one area of the hypopharynx and is 2 centimeters or smaller; cancer has also spread to a single lymph node on the same side of the neck and the lymph node is 3 centimeters or smaller; or (2) in more than one area of the hypopharynx, is in nearby tissues, or is larger than 2 centimeters but not larger than 4 centimeters and is not in the larynx; cancer has also spread to a single lymph node on the same side of the neck and the lymph node is 3 centimeters or smaller; or (3) larger than 4 centimeters or has spread to the larynx; cancer may have spread to a single lymph node on the same side of the neck and the lymph node is 3 centimeters or smaller.

stage III kidney cancer
Cancer is found in either (1) the kidney and in 1 nearby lymph node; or (2) an adrenal gland or in the layer of fatty tissue around the kidney, and may be found in 1 nearby lymph node; or (3) the main blood vessels of the kidney and may be found in 1 nearby lymph node. Also called stage III renal cell cancer.

stage III laryngeal cancer (...luh-RIN-jul...)
In stage III laryngeal cancer, one of the following is found: (1) cancer is in the larynx only and the vocal cords do not move normally; cancer may have spread to tissues next to the larynx; cancer may have spread to one lymph node on the same side of the neck as the original tumor and the lymph node is smaller than 3 centimeters; or (2) cancer is in one area of the larynx, the vocal cords move normally, and cancer is found in one lymph node on the same side of the neck as the original tumor; the lymph node is smaller than 3 centimeters; or (3) cancer is in more than one area of the larynx or in the vocal cords (which may not move normally) and in one lymph node on the same side of the neck as the original tumor; the lymph node is smaller than 3 centimeters.

stage III lip and oral cavity cancer
The cancer is larger than 4 centimeters (about 2 inches); or the cancer is any size but has spread to only one lymph node on the same side of the neck as the cancer. The lymph node that contains cancer is no larger than 3 centimeters (just over one inch).

stage III malignant mesothelioma (...muh-LIG-nunt meh-zuh-thee-lee-OH-muh)
Cancer has spread to the chest wall, mediastinum, heart, lining of the peritoneum, and/or beyond the diaphragm. Cancer may also have spread to lymph nodes on the other side of the chest or outside the chest. Stage III malignant mesothelioma is advanced malignant mesothelioma.

stage III melanoma
The tumor may be any thickness, with or without ulceration (formation of a break on the skin or surface of an organ), and (1) has spread to 1 or more lymph nodes; or (2) has spread into the nearby lymph system but not into nearby lymph nodes; or (3) has spread to lymph nodes that are matted (not moveable); or (4) satellite tumors (additional tumor growths within 2 centimeters of the original tumor) are present and nearby lymph nodes are involved.

stage III Merkel cell carcinoma (... MER-kul ...)
The cancer may be any size and has spread beyond nearby lymph nodes to other parts of the body.

stage III multiple myeloma (... MUL-tih-pul MY-eh-LOH-muh)
A relatively large number of cancer cells have spread throughout the body. There may be one or more of the following: 1) a decrease in the number of red blood cells, causing anemia; 2) the amount of calcium in the blood is very high, because the bones are being damaged; 3) more than three bone tumors (plasmacytomas) are found; or 4) high levels of M protein are found in the blood or urine.

stage III mycosis fungoides and the Sézary syndrome (...my-KOH-sis fun-GOY-deez...)
In stage III, nearly all of the skin is reddened and there may be patches, plaques, or tumors. Lymph nodes may be enlarged but cancer has not spread to them. Stage III may also be classified based on how many abnormal lymphocytes (white blood cells) are found in the blood.

stage III nasopharyngeal cancer (...NAY-zoh-fuh-RIN-jee-ul KAN-ser)
Cancer (1) is found in the nasopharynx and has spread to lymph nodes on both sides of the neck; or (2) has spread into the soft tissues (oropharynx and/or nasal cavity) and to lymph nodes on both sides of the neck; or (3) has spread beyond the soft tissues into areas around the pharynx and to lymph nodes on both sides of the neck; or (4) has spread to nearby bones or sinuses and may have spread to lymph nodes on one or both sides of the neck.

stage III non-small cell lung cancer
Cancer has spread to structures near the lung; to the lymph nodes in the area that separates the two lungs (mediastinum); or to the lymph nodes on the other side of the chest or in the lower neck. Stage III is further divided into stage IIIA (usually can be resected which is sometimes treated with surgery) and stage IIIB (usually cannot be resected which is rarely treated with surgery).

stage III oropharynx cancer
The tumor is larger than 4 centimeters (about 1.5 inches) in size and may involve a single lymph node on the same side of the neck.

stage III ovarian cancer (...oh-VAYR-ee-un KAN-ser)
Cancer is found in one or both ovaries and has spread to other parts of the abdomen. Stage III is divided into stage IIIA, stage IIIB, and stage IIIC. In stage IIIA, the tumor is found in the pelvis only, but cancer cells have spread to the surface of the peritoneum. In stage IIIB, cancer has spread to the peritoneum but is not larger than 2 centimeters in diameter. In stage IIIC, cancer has spread to the peritoneum and is larger than 2 centimeters in diameter and/or has spread to lymph nodes in the abdomen. Cancer that has spread to the surface of the liver is also considered stage III disease.

stage III ovarian germ cell tumor (...oh-VAYR-ee-un jerm sel TOO-mer)
Stage III ovarian germ cell tumor is divided into stages IIIA, IIIB, and IIIC. In stage IIIA, the tumor is found in the pelvis only, but cancer cells have spread to the surface of the peritoneum (the tissue that lines the abdominal wall and covers most of the organs in the abdomen). In stage IIIB, cancer has spread to the peritoneum but is 2 centimeters or smaller in diameter. In stage IIIC, cancer has spread to the peritoneum and is larger than 2 centimeters in diameter and/or has spread to lymph nodes in the abdomen. Cancer that has spread to the surface of the liver is considered stage III disease.

stage III pancreatic cancer
Cancer has spread to the major blood vessels near the pancreas, and may have spread to nearby lymph nodes.

stage III penile cancer (... PEE-nile ...)
Cancer has spread to connective tissue or erectile tissue of the penis and to more than one lymph node in the groin; or cancer has spread to the urethra or prostate and may have spread to one or more lymph nodes in the groin.

stage III prostate cancer (...PROS-tayt KAN-ser)
Cancer has spread beyond the outer layer of the prostate to nearby tissues and may be found in the seminal vesicles (glands that help produce semen). Also called stage C prostate cancer.

stage III renal cell cancer (REE-nul)
Cancer is found in (1) the kidney and in 1 nearby lymph node; or (2) an adrenal gland or in the layer of fatty tissue around the kidney, and may be found in 1 nearby lymph node; or (3) the main blood vessels of the kidney and may be found in 1 nearby lymph node. Also called stage III kidney cancer.

stage III skin cancer
Cancer has spread below the skin to cartilage, muscle, or bone and/or to nearby lymph nodes, but not to other parts of the body.

stage III soft tissue sarcoma
The cancer cells look very different from normal cells. The cancer is larger than 5 centimeters (about 2 inches) but has not spread to lymph nodes or other parts of the body.

stage III testicular cancer (...tes-TIH-kyuh-ler KAN-ser)
Stage III is divided into stage IIIA, stage IIIB, and stage IIIC, and is determined after a radical inguinal orchiectomy (surgery to remove the testicle) is done. In stage IIIA, the cancer is anywhere within the testicle, spermatic cord, or scrotum; may have spread to one or more lymph nodes in the abdomen; and has spread to distant lymph nodes or to the lungs. In stage IIIB, the cancer is anywhere within the testicle, spermatic cord, or scrotum; and may have spread to one or more nearby or distant lymph nodes or to the lungs. In stage IIIC, the cancer is anywhere within the testicle, spermatic cord, or scrotum; and may have spread to one or more nearby or distant lymph nodes or to the lungs or anywhere else in the body. The level of one or more tumor markers may range from normal to very high.

stage III transitional cell cancer of the renal pelvis and ureter (.. tran-ZIH-shuh-nul sel KAN-ser ... REE-nul PEL-vus and YER-eh-ter)
Cancer has spread either (1) to the layer of fat outside the renal pelvis and/or ureter; or (2) into the wall of the kidney.

stage III uterine sarcoma (…YOO-teh-rin sar-KOH-muh)
Stage III uterine sarcoma is divided into stages IIIA and IIIB based on how far the cancer has spread within the pelvis (lower part of the abdomen between the hip bones). In stage IIIA, cancer has spread to the outermost layer of the uterus; and /or tissues just beyond the uterus; and/or the peritoneum. In stage IIIB, cancer has spread to lymph nodes in the pelvis and/or near the uterus.

stage III Wilms tumor
Cancer remains in the abdomen after surgery and at least one of the following is true: (1) cancer has spread to lymph nodes in the abdomen or pelvis (the part of the body between the hips); (2) cancer has spread to or through the surface of the peritoneum (the layer of tissue that lines the abdominal cavity and covers most organs in the abdomen); (3) a biopsy of the tumor was done during surgery to remove it; (4) the tumor was removed in more than one piece.

stage IIIA adult primary liver cancer
Stage III adult primary liver cancer is divided into stages IIIA, IIIB, and IIIC. In stage IIIA there is either (1) more than one tumor larger than 5 centimeters; or (2) one tumor that has spread to a major branch of blood vessels near the liver.

stage IIIA anal cancer
Stage III anal cancer is divided into stages IIIA and IIIB. In stage IIIA, the tumor may be any size and has spread to either (1) lymph nodes near the rectum; or (2) nearby organs, such as the vagina, urethra, and bladder.

stage IIIA breast cancer
Stage III breast cancer is divided into stages IIIA, IIIB, and IIIC. In stage IIIA, (1) no tumor is found in the breast, but cancer is found in axillary (under the arm) lymph nodes that are attached to each other or to other structures; or (2) the tumor is 5 centimeters or smaller and has spread to axillary lymph nodes that are attached to each other or to other structures; or (3) the tumor is larger than 5 centimeters and has spread to axillary lymph nodes that may or may not be attached to each other or to other structures.

stage IIIB adult primary liver cancer
Stage III adult primary liver cancer is divided into stages IIIA, IIIB, and IIIC. In stage IIIB, there are one or more tumors of any size that have either (1) spread to nearby organs other than the gallbladder; or (2) broken through the lining of the peritoneal cavity.

stage IIIB anal cancer
Stage III anal cancer is divided into stages IIIA and IIIB. In stage IIIB, the tumor may be any size and has spread to (1) nearby organs and to lymph nodes near the rectum; or (2) lymph nodes on one side of the pelvis and/or groin, and may have spread to nearby organs; or (3) lymph nodes near the rectum and in the groin, and/or to lymph nodes on both sides of the pelvis and/or groin, and may have spread to nearby organs.

stage IIIB breast cancer
Stage III breast cancer is divided into stages IIIA, IIIB, and IIIC. In stage IIIB, the cancer may be any size, has spread to tissues near the breast (the skin or chest wall, including the ribs and muscles in the chest), and may have spread to lymph nodes within the breast or under the arm.

stage IIIC adult primary liver cancer
Stage III adult primary liver cancer is divided into stages IIIA, IIIB, and IIIC. In stage IIIC, the cancer has spread to nearby lymph nodes.

stage IIIC breast cancer
Stage III breast cancer is divided into stages IIIA, IIIB, and IIIC. In stage IIIC, cancer has spread to lymph nodes beneath the collarbone and near the neck; and may have spread to lymph nodes within the breast or under the arm and to tissues near the breast.

stage IV adrenocortical cancer
The cancer has spread to tissues or organs in the area and to lymph nodes around the adrenal cortex, or the cancer has spread to other parts of the body.

stage IV adult Hodgkin lymphoma (... HOJ-kin lim-FOH-muh)
The cancer is found in at least one organ other than the lymph nodes and may be in the lymph nodes near the organ(s); or the cancer is found in one organ other than the lymph nodes and has spread to lymph nodes far away from the organ.

stage IV adult non-Hodgkin lymphoma (... non-HOJ-kin lim-FOH-muh)
The cancer either (1) is found in at least one organ or tissue other than the lymph nodes and may be in nearby lymph nodes; or (2) has spread to one organ other than the lymph nodes and has spread to lymph nodes far away from that organ.

stage IV adult primary liver cancer
Cancer has spread beyond the liver to other places in the body, such as the bones or lungs. The tumors may be of any size and may also have spread to nearby blood vessels and/or lymph nodes.

stage IV AIDS-related lymphoma
In stage IV AIDS-related lymphoma, the cancer is found (1) in several areas throughout one or more organs that are not part of the lymph system, and it may be in nearby lymph nodes; or (2) in one organ that is not part of the lymph system, and it has spread to lymph nodes far away from that organ.

stage IV anal cancer
The tumor may be any size, and cancer has spread to distant parts of the body. It may also have spread to lymph nodes and nearby organs.

stage IV bladder cancer
Cancer has spread from the bladder to the wall of the abdomen or pelvis. Cancer may have spread to one or more lymph nodes or to other parts of the body.

stage IV breast cancer
Cancer has spread to other organs of the body, most often the bones, lungs, liver, or brain.

stage IV cancer of the uterus
Cancer cells have spread to the lining of the bladder or rectum or to distant parts of the body.

stage IV cancer of the vulva
Cancer has spread beyond the urethra, vagina, and anus into the lining of the bladder (the sac that holds urine) and the bowel (intestine); or it may have spread to the lymph nodes in the pelvis or to other parts of the body.

stage IV cervical cancer (... SER-vih-kul KAN-ser)
Cancer has spread to the bladder, rectum, or other parts of the body. Stage IV is divided into stages IVA and IVB. In stage IVA, cancer has spread to the bladder or rectal wall and may have spread to lymph nodes in the pelvis. In stage IVB, cancer has spread beyond the pelvis and pelvic lymph nodes to other places in the body, such as the abdomen, liver, intestinal tract, or lungs.

stage IV childhood Hodgkin lymphoma (...HOJ-kin lim-FOH-muh)
Cancer is found throughout one or more organs that are not part of the lymph system and may be in lymph nodes near or far away from those organs.

stage IV childhood liver cancer
The cancer has spread to other parts of the body.

stage IV childhood non-Hodgkin lymphoma (... non-HOJ-kin lim-FOH-muh)
Cancer is found in the bone marrow, brain, or spinal cord. Cancer may also be found in other parts of the body.

stage IV chronic lymphocytic leukemia
There are too many lymphocytes in the blood and too few platelets. The lymph nodes, liver, or spleen may be larger than normal and there may be too few red blood cells.

stage IV colorectal cancer (...KOH-loh-REK-tul KAN-ser)
Cancer may have spread to nearby lymph nodes and has spread to other parts of the body, such as the liver or lungs. Also called Dukes D colorectal cancer.

stage IV cutaneous T-cell lymphoma
Stage IV cutaneous T-cell lymphoma may be either of the following: in stage IVA cancer, the skin is red, dry, and scaly, and the lymph nodes contain cancer cells; in stage IVB cancer, the skin is red, dry and scaly, cancer cells may be found in lymph nodes, and cancer has spread to other organs in the body.

stage IV endometrial cancer
Cancer has spread beyond the pelvis. Stage IV is divided into stage IVA and IVB, based on how far the cancer has spread. In stage IVA, cancer has spread to the bladder or bowel wall. In stage IVB, cancer has spread to other parts of the body beyond the pelvis, including lymph nodes in the abdomen and/or groin.

stage IV esophageal cancer (...ee-SAH-fuh-JEE-ul KAN-ser)
Stage IV esophageal cancer is divided into stage IVA and stage IVB, depending on where the cancer has spread. In stage IVA, cancer has spread to nearby or distant lymph nodes. In stage IVB, cancer has spread to distant lymph nodes and/or organs in other parts of the body.

stage IV extrahepatic bile duct cancer (EK-struh-hih-PA-tik bile dukt)
Cancer has spread to lymph nodes and/or organs far away from the extrahepatic bile duct.

stage IV gallbladder cancer
In stage IV, cancer has spread to nearby lymph nodes and/or to organs far away from the gallbladder.

stage IV gastric cancer
Cancer has spread (1) to organs next to the stomach and to at least one lymph node, or (2) to more than 15 lymph nodes, or (3) to other parts of the body.

stage IV hypopharynx cancer
The tumor has spread to nearby tissues and lymph nodes of the neck and may have spread to other parts of the body.

stage IV kidney cancer
Cancer has spread (1) beyond the layer of fatty tissue around the kidney and may be found in 1 nearby lymph node; or (2) to 2 or more nearby lymph nodes; or (3) to other organs, such as the bowel, pancreas, or lungs, and may be found in nearby lymph nodes. Also called stage IV renal cell cancer.

stage IV laryngeal cancer
The cancer has spread to tissues around the larynx, such as the pharynx or the tissues in the neck. The lymph nodes in the area may contain cancer; the cancer has spread to more than one lymph node on the same side of the neck as the cancer, to lymph nodes on one or both sides of the neck, or to any lymph node that measures more than 6 centimeters (over 2 inches); or the cancer has spread to other parts of the body.

stage IV lip and oral cavity cancer
Stage IV is divided into stages IVA, IVB, and IVC. In stage IVA, the tumor has spread to nearby tissues in the lip and oral cavity (mouth); and/or cancer has spread to one or more lymph nodes in the neck and the involved lymph nodes are 6 centimeters (about 2 inches) or smaller. In stage IVB, the tumor has spread to one or more lymph nodes that are larger than 6 centimeters; or cancer has spread to the muscles or bones in the oral cavity, or to the base of the skull, and/or the carotid artery (blood vessel that carries blood from the heart to the head). Cancer may also have spread to one or more lymph nodes in the neck. In stage IVC, the tumor has spread beyond the lip and oral cavity to other parts of the body. Cancer may have spread to the lymph nodes.

stage IV malignant mesothelioma (...muh-LIG-nunt meh-zuh-thee-lee-OH-muh)
Cancer has spread to distant organs or tissues. Stage IV malignant mesothelioma is advanced malignant mesothelioma.

stage IV melanoma
The tumor may be any thickness, with or without ulceration (formation of a break on the skin or surface of an organ), may have spread to 1 or more nearby lymph nodes, and has spread to other places in the body.

stage IV mycosis fungoides and the Sézary syndrome (...my-KOH-sis fun-GOY-deez...)
Stage IV is divided into stages IVA and IVB. In stage IVA, most of the skin is reddened, and any amount of the skin is covered with patches and/or plaques (areas of abnormal tissue) or tumors (lumps of malignant cells). Cancer has spread to lymph nodes, and the lymph nodes may be enlarged. In stage IVB, most of the skin is reddened, and any amount of the skin is covered with lesions or tumors. Cancer has spread to other organs in the body. Lymph nodes may be enlarged and cancer may have spread to them. Stage IV may also be classified based on how many abnormal lymphocytes (white blood cells) are found in the blood.

stage IV nasopharyngeal cancer (...NAY-zoh-fuh-RIN-jee-ul KAN-ser)
Stage IV nasopharyngeal cancer is divided into stages IVA, IVB, and IVC. In stage IVA, cancer has spread beyond the nasopharynx and may have spread to the cranial nerves, the hypopharynx (bottom part of the throat), areas in and around the side of the skull or jawbone, and/or the bone around the eye. Cancer may also have spread to lymph nodes on one or both sides of the neck, and the involved lymph nodes are 6 centimeters or smaller. In stage IVB, cancer has spread to lymph nodes above the collarbone and/or the involved lymph nodes are larger than 6 centimeters. In stage IVC, cancer has spread beyond nearby lymph nodes to other parts of the body.

stage IV non-small cell lung cancer
Cancer has spread to other parts of the body or to another lobe of the lungs.

stage IV oropharynx cancer
The tumor has spread to the hard palate, tongue, or larynx, to nearby lymph nodes, and may have spread to other parts of the body.

stage IV ovarian cancer (...oh-VAYR-ee-un KAN-ser)
Cancer is found in one or both ovaries and has metastasized (spread) beyond the abdomen to other parts of the body. Cancer that is found in tissues of the liver is considered stage IV disease.

stage IV ovarian germ cell tumor (...oh-VAYR-ee-un jerm sel TOO-mer)
Cancer is found in one or both ovaries and has metastasized (spread) beyond the abdomen to other parts of the body. Cancer is found in the tissues of the liver.

stage IV pancreatic cancer
Cancer may be of any size and has spread to distant organs, such as the liver, lung, and peritoneal cavity (the body cavity that contains most of the organs in the abdomen), and may have also spread to organs and tissues near the pancreas or to lymph nodes.

stage IV penile cancer (... PEE-nile ...)
Cancer has spread to tissues near the penis and may have spread to lymph nodes in the groin or pelvis; or cancer has spread anywhere in or near the penis and to one or more lymph nodes deep in the pelvis or groin; or cancer has spread to distant parts of the body.

stage IV prostate cancer (...PROS-tayt KAN-ser)
Cancer has metastasized (spread) to lymph nodes near or far from the prostate, or to other parts of the body, such as the bladder, rectum, bones, liver, or lungs. Metastatic prostate cancer often spreads to the bones. Also called stage D1 prostate cancer and stage D2 prostate cancer.

stage IV renal cell cancer (REE-nul)
Cancer has spread (1) beyond the layer of fatty tissue around the kidney and may be found in 1 nearby lymph node; or (2) to 2 or more nearby lymph nodes; or (3) to other organs, such as the bowel, pancreas, or lungs, and may be found in nearby lymph nodes. Also called stage IV kidney cancer.

stage IV skin cancer
Cancer has spread to other parts of the body.

stage IV soft tissue sarcoma
The cancer has spread to lymph nodes in the area or other parts of the body (such as the lungs, head, or neck).

stage IV transitional cell cancer of the renal pelvis and ureter (... tran-ZIH-shuh-nul sel KAN-ser ... REE-nul PEL-vus and YER-eh-ter)
Cancer has spread to a nearby organ and/or to the layer of fat surrounding the kidney.

stage IV uterine sarcoma (…YOO-teh-rin sar-KOH-muh)
Stage IV uterine sarcoma is divided into stages IVA and IVB. In stage IVA, cancer has spread to the bladder and/or bowel wall. In stage IVB, cancer has spread to other parts of the body beyond the pelvis, including lymph nodes in the abdomen and groin.

stage IV Wilms tumor
Cancer has spread through the blood to organs such as the lungs, liver, bone, or brain, or to lymph nodes outside of the abdomen and pelvis (the part of the body between the hips).

stage IVA hypopharyngeal cancer
Stage IV hypopharyngeal cancer is divided into stages IVA, IVB, and IVC. In stage IVA, the tumor is (1) any size and has spread to nearby soft tissue, connective tissue, the thyroid, or the esophagus; cancer may be found either in one lymph node on the same side of the neck (the lymph node is 3 centimeters or smaller) or in one or more lymph nodes anywhere in the neck (all of these lymph nodes are 6 centimeters or smaller); or (2) in only one area of the hypopharynx, is 2 centimeters or smaller, and has also spread to one or more lymph nodes anywhere in the neck (all of these lymph nodes are 6 centimeters or smaller); or (3) in more than one area of the hypopharynx, is in nearby tissues, or is larger than 2 centimeters but not larger than 4 centimeters and has not spread to the larynx; cancer has spread to one or more lymph nodes anywhere in the neck (all of these lymph nodes are 6 centimeters or smaller); or (4) larger than 4 centimeters or has spread to the larynx; cancer has also spread to one or more lymph nodes anywhere in the neck (all of these lymph nodes are 6 centimeters or smaller).

stage IVA laryngeal cancer (...luh-RIN-jul...)
Stage IV is divided into stages IVA, IVB, and IVC. In stage IVA, one of the following is found: (1) cancer has spread through the thyroid cartilage and/or has spread to tissues beyond the larynx such as the neck, trachea, thyroid, or esophagus; cancer may have spread to one lymph node on the same side of the neck as the original tumor and the lymph node is smaller than 3 centimeters; or (2) cancer has spread to one or more lymph nodes anywhere in the neck and the lymph nodes are smaller than 6 centimeters; cancer may have spread to tissues beyond the larynx, such as the neck, trachea, thyroid, or esophagus. Vocal cords may not move normally.

stage IVA lip and oral cavity cancer
Stage IV is divided into stages IVA, IVB, and IVC. In stage IVA, the tumor has spread to nearby tissues in the lip and oral cavity (mouth); and/or cancer has spread to one or more lymph nodes in the neck and the involved lymph nodes are 6 centimeters (about 2 inches) or smaller.

stage IVA pancreatic cancer
Cancer has spread to organs that are near the pancreas (such as the stomach, spleen, or colon) but has not spread to distant organs (such as the liver or lungs).

stage IVB hypopharyngeal cancer
Stage IV hypopharyngeal cancer is divided into stages IVA, IVB, and IVC. In stage IVB, the tumor either (1) has spread to nearby soft tissue, connective tissue, blood vessels, the thyroid, or the esophagus, and may have spread to lymph nodes of any size; or (2) is any size and has spread to lymph nodes that are larger than 6 centimeters.

stage IVB laryngeal cancer (...luh-RIN-jul...)
Stage IV is divided into stages IVA, IVB, and IVC. In stage IVB, one of the following is found: (1) cancer has spread to the space in front of the spinal column and surrounds the carotid artery, or has spread to parts of the chest and may have spread to one or more lymph nodes anywhere in the neck (the lymph nodes may be any size); or (2) cancer has spread to a lymph node that is larger than 6 centimeters and may have spread as far as the space in front of the spinal column, around the carotid artery, or to parts of the chest. Vocal cords may not move normally.

stage IVB lip and oral cavity cancer
Stage IV is divided into stages IVA, IVB, and IVC. In stage IVB, the tumor has spread to one or more lymph nodes that are larger than 6 centimeters (about 2 inches); or cancer has spread to the muscles or bones in the oral cavity (mouth), or to the base of the skull, and/or the carotid artery (blood vessel that carries blood from the heart to the head). Cancer may also have spread to one or more lymph nodes in the neck.

stage IVB pancreatic cancer
Cancer of the pancreas in which the cancer has spread to distant organs (such as the liver or lungs).

stage IVC hypopharyngeal cancer
Stage IV hypopharyngeal cancer is divided into stages IVA, IVB, and IVC. In stage IVC, cancer has spread beyond the hypopharynx to other parts of the body.

stage IVC laryngeal cancer (...luh-RIN-jul...)
Stage IV is divided into stages IVA, IVB, and IVC. In stage IVC, cancer has spread beyond the larynx to distant parts of the body.

stage IVC lip and oral cavity cancer
Stage IV is divided into stages IVA, IVB, and IVC. In stage IVC, the tumor has spread beyond the lip and oral cavity (mouth) to other parts of the body. Cancer may have spread to the lymph nodes.

stage V Wilms tumor
Cancer cells are found in both kidneys when the disease is first diagnosed. Each kidney is staged separately as I, II, III, or IV.

staging (STAY-jing)
Performing exams and tests to learn the extent of the cancer within the body, especially whether the disease has spread from the original site to other parts of the body. It is important to know the stage of the disease in order to plan the best treatment.

stamina (STA-mih-nuh)
The energy and strength to endure physical activity, stress, or illness over time.

standard of care
In medicine, treatment that experts agree is appropriate, accepted, and widely used. Health care providers are obligated to provide patients with the standard of care. Also called standard therapy or best practice.

standard therapy (...THAYR-uh-pee)
In medicine, treatment that experts agree is appropriate, accepted, and widely used. Health care providers are obligated to provide patients with standard therapy. Also called standard of care or best practice.

statin (STA-tin)
Any of a group of drugs that lower the amount of cholesterol and certain fats in the blood. Statins inhibit a key enzyme that helps make cholesterol. Statin drugs are being studied in the prevention and treatment of cancer.

statistically significant
Describes a mathematical measure of difference between groups. The difference is said to be statistically significant if it is greater than what might be expected to happen by chance alone. Also called significant.

staurosporine
A drug that belongs to the family of drugs called alkaloids. It is being studied in the treatment of cancer.

stavudine
A drug that belongs to the family of drugs called nucleoside analogs. It is used to treat infection caused by viruses.

stellate
Star shaped.

stem cell
A cell from which other types of cells develop. For example, blood cells develop from blood-forming stem cells.

stem cell factor
SCF. A drug being studied for its ability to increase the number of stem cells in the blood. It is a type of hematopoietic cell growth factor. Also called SCF, ancestim, and Stemgen.

stem cell transplantation
A method of replacing immature blood-forming cells that were destroyed by cancer treatment. The stem cells are given to the person after treatment to help the bone marrow recover and continue producing healthy blood cells.

Stemgen
A drug that is being studied for its ability to increase the number of stem cells in the blood. It belongs to the family of drugs called hematopoietic cell growth factors. Also called stem cell factor, SCF, and ancestim.

stent
A device placed in a body structure (such as a blood vessel or the gastrointestinal tract) to keep the structure open.

stereotactic biopsy (STAYR-ee-oh-TAK-tik BY-op-see)
A biopsy procedure that uses a computer and a 3-dimensional scanning device to find a tumor site and guide the removal of tissue for examination under a microscope.

stereotactic body radiation therapy (STAYR-ee-oh-TAK-tik BAH-dee RAY-dee-AY-shun THAYR-uh-pee)
A radiation therapy technique that uses special equipment to position the patient and precisely deliver a large radiation dose to a tumor and not to normal tissue.

stereotactic external-beam radiation therapy (STAYR-ee-oh-TAK-tik ... RAY-dee-AY-shun THAYR-uh-pee)
A type of external radiation therapy that uses special equipment to position the patient and precisely deliver radiation to a tumor. The total dose of radiation is divided into several smaller doses given over several days. Stereotactic external-beam radiation therapy is used to treat brain tumors and other brain disorders. It is also being studied in the treatment of other types of cancer, such as lung cancer. Also called stereotactic radiation therapy and stereotaxic radiation therapy.

stereotactic injection
A procedure in which a computer and a 3-dimensional scanning device are used to inject anticancer drugs directly into a tumor.

stereotactic radiation therapy (STAYR-ee-oh-TAK-tik RAY-dee-AY-shun THAYR-uh-pee)
A type of external radiation therapy that uses special equipment to position the patient and precisely deliver radiation to a tumor. The total dose of radiation is divided into several smaller doses given over several days. Stereotactic radiation therapy is used to treat brain tumors and other brain disorders. It is also being studied in the treatment of other types of cancer, such as lung cancer. Also called stereotactic external-beam radiation therapy and stereotaxic radiation therapy.

stereotactic radiosurgery (STAYR-ee-oh-TAK-tik RAY-dee-oh-SER-juh-ree)
A type of external radiation therapy that uses special equipment to position the patient and precisely give a single large dose of radiation to a tumor. It is used to treat brain tumors and other brain disorders that cannot be treated by regular surgery. It also is being studied in the treatment of other types of cancer. Also called stereotaxic radiosurgery, radiosurgery, and radiation surgery.

stereotaxic radiation therapy (STAYR-ee-oh-TAK-sik RAY-dee-AY-shun THAYR-uh-pee)
A type of external radiation therapy that uses special equipment to position the patient and precisely deliver radiation to a tumor. The total dose of radiation is divided into several smaller doses given over several days. Stereotaxic radiation therapy is used to treat brain tumors and other brain disorders. It is also being studied in the treatment of other types of cancer, such as lung cancer. Also called stereotactic external-beam radiation therapy and stereotactic radiation therapy.

stereotaxic radiosurgery (STAYR-ee-oh-TAK-sik RAY-dee-oh-SER-jeh-ree)
A type of external radiation therapy that uses special equipment to position the patient and precisely give a single large dose of radiation to a tumor. It is used to treat brain tumors and other brain disorders that cannot be treated by regular surgery. It also is being studied in the treatment of other types of cancer. Also called stereotactic radiosurgery, radiosurgery, and radiation surgery.

stereotaxis (STAYR-ee-oh-TAX-iss)
Use of a computer and scanning devices to create 3-dimensional pictures. This method can be used to direct a biopsy, external radiation, or the insertion of radiation implants.

sterile (STER-il)
Unable to produce children. Also means free from germs.

sterile talc powder (STER-il...)
A mineral, usually used in a powdered form. In cancer treatment, sterile talc powder is used to prevent pleural effusions (an abnormal collection of fluid in the space between the lungs and the chest wall). Sterile talc powder is inserted into the space, causing it to close up, so fluid cannot collect there. Also called talc.

sternum
The long flat bone that forms the center front of the chest wall. The sternum is attached to the collarbone and the first seven ribs. Also called breastbone.

steroid cream (STAYR-oyd...)
A skin cream containing a type of drug that relieves swelling, itching, and inflammation.

steroid drug (STAYR-oyd)
A type of drug used to relieve swelling and inflammation. Some steroid drugs may also have antitumor effects.

steroid metabolism gene (STAYR-oyd meh-TA-buh-lih-zum JEEN)
A type of gene that helps the body build up or break down steroids. Steroids may be made by the body (such as hormones and cholesterol) or made in a laboratory (such as drugs). A steroid metabolism gene called CYP17 is being studied in breast, ovarian, and uterine cancers.

steroid therapy (STAYR-oyd THAYR-uh-pee)
Treatment with corticosteroid drugs to reduce swelling, pain, and other symptoms of inflammation.

STI571
A drug used to treat different types of leukemia and other cancers of the blood, gastrointestinal stromal tumors, skin tumors called dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans, and a rare condition called systemic mastocytosis. It is also being studied in the treatment of other types of cancer. STI571 blocks the protein made by the bcr/abl oncogene. It is a type of tyrosine kinase inhibitor. Also called imatinib mesylate and Gleevec.

stimulant (STIM-yoo-lunt)
In medicine, a family of drugs used to treat depression, attention-deficit disorder (a common disorder in which children are inattentive, impulsive, and/or over-active), and narcolepsy (a sleep disorder that causes uncontrollable sleepiness). Stimulants increase brain activity, alertness, attention, and energy. They also raise blood pressure and increase heart rate and breathing rate.

stoma (STOH-muh)
A surgically created opening from an area inside the body to the outside.

stomach (STUH-muk)
An organ that is part of the digestive system. The stomach helps digest food by mixing it with digestive juices and churning it into a thin liquid.

stomach cancer (STUH-muk KAN-ser)
Cancer that forms in tissues lining the stomach. Also called gastric cancer.

stomatitis
Inflammation or irritation of the mucous membranes in the mouth.

stool
The material in a bowel movement. Stool is made up of food that was not digested, bacteria, mucus, and cells from the intestines. Also called feces.

stool test
A test to check for hidden blood in the bowel movement.

streptavidin
A small bacterial protein that binds with high affinity to the vitamin biotin. This streptavidin-biotin combination can be used to link molecules such as radioisotopes and monoclonal antibodies together. These bound products have the property of being attracted to, and attaching to, cancer cells, rather than normal cells. The radiolabeled products are more easily removed from the body, thus decreasing their toxicity.

streptozocin
An anticancer drug that belongs to the family of drugs called alkylating agents.

stroke
In medicine, a loss of blood flow to part of the brain, which damages brain tissue. Strokes are caused by blood clots and broken blood vessels in the brain. Symptoms include dizziness, numbness, weakness on one side of the body, and problems with talking, writing, or understanding language. The risk of stroke is increased by high blood pressure, older age, smoking, diabetes, high cholesterol, heart disease, atherosclerosis (a build-up of fatty material and plaque inside the coronary arteries), and a family history of stroke.

Stromagen
A drug that is derived from a patient's stem cells (specialized cells in the bone marrow that form new blood cells) and may be given back to the patient to help restore bone marrow that has been damaged by high-dose chemotherapy.

stromal tumor (STRO-mal)
A tumor that arises in the supporting connective tissue of an organ.

strontium
A metal often used in a radioactive form for imaging tests and in the treatment of cancer.

strontium ranelate (STRON-chee-um RAN-uh-layt)
A substance that is being studied in the treatment of osteoporosis in postmenopausal women. Strontium ranelate helps new bone tissue to grow and decreases bone loss. This lowers the risk of bone fractures.

strontium-89
A radioactive compound that is absorbed by the bone. It is used to treat bone pain associated with prostate cancer.

study agent
A medicine, vitamin, mineral, food supplement, or a combination of them that is being tested in a clinical trial.

Sturge-Weber syndrome
SWS. A rare, congenital disorder that affects the brain, skin, and eyes. Abnormal blood vessel growth occurs in the trigeminal nerve in the face and the meninges (covering) of the brain. This abnormal growth causes red or purple skin discoloration (sometimes called a port wine stain), usually on one side of the face, and can also cause seizures, learning disabilities, and glaucoma. Also called SWS.

SU006668
A substance that is being studied in the treatment of cancer. It belongs to the families of drugs called protein tyrosine kinase inhibitors and angiogenesis inhibitors. Also called SU6668.

SU011248
A drug used to treat gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST) that have not responded to treatment with imatinib mesylate (Gleevec). SU011248 is also used to treat advanced kidney cancer and is being studied in the treatment of other types of cancer. It is a type of tyrosine kinase inhibitor, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) receptor inhibitor, and angiogenesis inhibitor. Also called sunitinib, sunitinib malate, SU11248, and Sutent.

SU101
An anticancer drug that works by inhibiting a cancer cell growth factor. Also called leflunomide.

SU11248
A drug used to treat gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST) that have not responded to treatment with imatinib mesylate (Gleevec). SU11248 is also used to treat advanced kidney cancer and is being studied in the treatment of other types of cancer. It is a type of tyrosine kinase inhibitor, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) receptor inhibitor, and angiogenesis inhibitor. Also called sunitinib, sunitinib malate, SU011248, and Sutent.

SU5416
A substance that has been studied in the treatment of cancer. It belongs to the families of drugs called angiogenesis inhibitors and tyrosine kinase inhibitors. Also called semaxanib.

SU6668
A substance that is being studied in the treatment of cancer. It belongs to the families of drugs called protein tyrosine kinase inhibitors and angiogenesis inhibitors. Also called SU006668.

subcutaneous
Beneath the skin.

subcutaneous port
A tube surgically placed into a blood vessel and attached to a disk placed under the skin. It is used for the administration of intravenous fluids and drugs; it can also be used to obtain blood samples.

subependymal (SUB-eh-PEN-dih-mul)
Describes the layer of cells just under the ependyma (the thin membrane that lines the fluid-filled spaces in the brain and spinal cord.

suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SOO-ber-oyl-AN-ih-lide hy-drok-SA-mik A-sid)
SAHA. A drug that is used to treat cutaneous T-cell lymphoma that does not get better, gets worse, or comes back during or after treatment with other drugs. It is also being studied in the treatment of other types of cancer. SAHA belongs to the family of drugs called histone deacetylase inhibitors. Also called SAHA, vorinostat, and Zolinza.

subglottis (SUB-glot-is)
The lowest part of the larynx; the area from just below the vocal cords down to the top of the trachea.

subjective improvement
An improvement that is reported by the patient, but cannot be measured by the healthcare provider (for example, "I feel better").

submucosa (sub-myoo-KOH-suh)
The layer of tissue under the mucosa (inner lining of some organs and body cavities that makes mucus).

subserosa (sub-seh-ROH-suh)
The layer of tissue under the serosa (outer lining of some organs and body cavities).

subset analysis
In a clinical study, the evaluation of results for some but not all of the patients who participated. The selected patients have one or more characteristics in common, such as the same stage of disease or the same hormone receptor status.

substance abuse (SUB-stunts uh-BYOOS)
The use of illegal drugs or the use of prescription or over-the-counter drugs or alcohol for purposes other than those for which they are meant to be used, or in excessive amounts. Substance abuse may lead to social, physical, emotional, and job-related problems.

subtenon
Used to describe injections through the membrane covering the muscles and nerves at the back of the eyeball.

sucralfate
A drug used to treat ulcers. It adheres to proteins at the ulcer site and forms a protective coating over the ulcer. Sucralfate is also used to treat mucositis.

suction aspiration (SUK-shun as-per-AY-shun)
A surgical procedure in which the cervix is dilated (opened) and vacuum is used to remove tissue from the uterus. Also called suction evacuation or vacuum aspiration.

suction evacuation (SUK-shun ee-VA-kyoo-A-shun)
A surgical procedure in which the cervix is dilated (opened) and vacuum is used to remove tissue from the uterus. Also called suction aspiration or vacuum aspiration.

sudden infant death syndrome (…SIN-drome)
SIDS. The sudden and unexpected death of a healthy child who is younger than one year old, usually during sleep. The cause of SIDS is not known. Also called SIDS and crib death.

suicide (SOO-ih-SYDE)
The act of taking one's own life on purpose.

sulfa drug
A type of antibiotic used to treat infection. Also called sulfonamide.

sulfonamide
A type of antibiotic used to treat infection. Also called sulfa drug.

sulfuric acid (sul-FYUR-ik A-sid)
A strong acid that, when concentrated, is extremely corrosive to the skin and mucous membranes. It is used in making fertilizers, dyes, electroplating, and industrial explosives.

sulindac
A nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) that is being studied as a treatment for cancer.

sun protection factor
SPF. A scale for rating the level of sunburn protection in sunscreen products. The higher the SPF, the more sunburn protection it gives. Sunscreens with an SPF value of 2 through 11 give minimal protection against sunburns. Sunscreens with an SPF of 12 through 29 give moderate protection. Those with an SPF of 30 or higher give high protection against sunburn. Also called SPF.

Sun's Soup (sunz soop)
A mixture of vegetables and other edible plants that has been studied in the treatment of cancer. The vegetables include soybean, shiitake mushroom, mung bean, red date, scallion, garlic, leek, lentil, Hawthorn fruit, onion, ginseng, Angelica root, licorice, dandelion root, senega root, ginger, olive, sesame seed, and parsley. Sun’s Soup is available in the United States as a dietary supplement.

sunitinib (soo-NIH-tih-nib)
A drug used to treat gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST) that have not responded to treatment with imatinib mesylate (Gleevec). Sunitinib is also used to treat advanced kidney cancer and is being studied in the treatment of other types of cancer. It is a type of tyrosine kinase inhibitor, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) receptor inhibitor, and angiogenesis inhibitor. Also called sunitinib malate, SU11248, SU011248, and Sutent.

sunitinib malate (soo-NIH-tih-nib MA-layt)
A drug used to treat gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST) that have not responded to treatment with imatinib mesylate (Gleevec). Sunitinib malate is also used to treat advanced kidney cancer and is being studied in the treatment of other types of cancer. It is a type of tyrosine kinase inhibitor, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) receptor inhibitor, and angiogenesis inhibitor. Also called sunitinib, SU11248, SU011248, and Sutent.

sunscreen
A substance that helps protect the skin from the sun's harmful rays. Sunscreens reflect, absorb, and scatter both ultraviolet A and B radiation to provide protection against both types of radiation. Using lotions, creams, or gels that contain sunscreens can help protect the skin from premature aging and damage that may lead to skin cancer.

superficial
Affecting cells on the surface. Not invasive.

superfractionated radiation therapy (SOO-per FRAK-shuh-NAYT-ed RAY-dee-AY-shun THAYR-uh-pee)
Radiation therapy that gives smaller doses (fractions) of radiation more often than standard radiation therapy so that the full treatment course can be given with fewer side effects. In superfractionated radiation therapy, individual doses are given more often than the standard dose of once a day. Also called hyperfractionated radiation therapy and hyperfractionation.

superior vena cava
The large vein that carries blood from the head, neck, arms, and chest to the heart.

superior vena cava syndrome
A condition in which a tumor presses against the superior vena cava (the large vein that carries blood from the head, neck, arms, and chest to the heart). This pressure blocks blood flow to the heart and may cause coughing, difficulty in breathing, and swelling of the face, neck, and upper arms.

supplemental nutrition (SUH-pleh-MEN-tul noo-TRIH-shun)
A substance or product that is added to a person’s diet to make sure they get all the nutrients they need. It may include vitamins, minerals, protein, or fat, and may be given by mouth, by tube feeding, or into a vein.

supplemental oxygen therapy (SUH-pleh-MEN-tul OK-sih-jen THAYR-uh-pee)
Treatment in which a storage tank of oxygen or a machine called a compressor is used to give oxygen to people with breathing problems. It may be given through a nose tube, a mask, or a tent. The extra oxygen is breathed in along with normal air. Also called oxygen therapy.

supplementation
Adding nutrients to the diet.

support group
A group of people with similar disease who meet to discuss how better to cope with their disease and treatment.

supportive care
Care given to improve the quality of life of patients who have a serious or life-threatening disease. The goal of supportive care is to prevent or treat as early as possible the symptoms of the disease, side effects caused by treatment of the disease, and psychological, social, and spiritual problems related to the disease or its treatment. Also called palliative care, comfort care, and symptom management.

suppository (suh-POZ-ih-TOR-ee)
A form of medicine contained in a small piece of solid material, such as cocoa butter or glycerin, that melts at body temperature. A suppository is inserted into the rectum, vagina, or urethra and the medicine is absorbed into the bloodstream.

supraclavicular lymph node (SOO-pruh-kla-VIH-kyuh-ler...)
A lymph node located above the clavicle (collarbone).

supraglottic laryngectomy (SOO-prah-GLOT-ik LA-rin-JEK-toh-mee)
An operation to remove the supraglottis, which is part of the larynx (voice box) above the vocal cords.

supraglottis (SOO-pra-GLOT-is)
The upper part of the larynx (voice box), including the epiglottis; the area above the vocal cords.

suprarenal gland (SOO-pruh-REE-nul...)
A small gland that makes steroid hormones, adrenaline, and noradrenaline. These hormones help control heart rate, blood pressure, and other important body functions. There are two suprarenal glands, one on top of each kidney. Also called adrenal gland.

supratentorial (soo-pruh-ten-TOR-ee-ul)
Having to do with the upper part of the brain.

suramin (SOO-rah-min)
A drug that is used to treat infections caused by parasites. It is also being studied in the treatment of cancer. It belongs to the families of drugs called antiprotozoals and anthelmintics.

surface electrode (SER-fuss ee-LEK-trode)
A small device that is attached to the skin to measure or cause electrical activity in the tissue under it. Surface electrodes may be used to look for problems with muscles and nerves.

surgeon
A doctor who removes or repairs a part of the body by operating on the patient.

surgery (SER-juh-ree)
A procedure to remove or repair a part of the body or to find out whether disease is present. An operation.

surgical biopsy (SER-jih-kul BY-op-see)
The removal of tissues by a surgeon for examination by a pathologist. The pathologist may study the tissue under a microscope.

surgical castration
Surgical removal of the testicles (orchiectomy) or ovaries (oophorectomy) to stop the production of sex hormones. Decreasing the levels of hormones may stop the growth of certain cancers.

surgical oncologist (SER-jih-kul on-KAH-loh-jist)
A doctor who performs biopsies and other surgical procedures in cancer patients.

surveillance (ser-VAY-lents)
In medicine, the ongoing collection of information about a disease, such as cancer, in a certain group of people. The information collected may include where the disease occurs in a population and whether it affects people of a certain gender, age, or ethnic group.

survival rate
The percentage of people in a study or treatment group who are alive for a given period of time after diagnosis. This is commonly expressed as 5-year survival.

survivor (ser-VY-ver)
One who remains alive and continues to function after overcoming difficulties or life-threatening diseases like cancer.

survivorship (ser-VY-ver-ship)
In cancer, survivorship covers the physical, psychosocial, and economic issues of cancer, from diagnosis until the end of life. It includes issues related to the ability to get health care and follow-up treatment, late effects of treatment, second cancers, and quality of life.

Sutent (SOO-tent)
A drug used to treat gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST) that have not responded to treatment with imatinib mesylate (Gleevec). Sutent is also used to treat advanced kidney cancer and is being studied in the treatment of other types of cancer. It is a type of tyrosine kinase inhibitor, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) receptor inhibitor, and angiogenesis inhibitor. Also called sunitinib, sunitinib malate, SU11248, and SU011248.

SV40
Simian virus 40. A virus that infects some types of monkeys. It may also infect humans, and was found in some polio vaccines tested in the early 1960s. Although the virus has been shown to cause cancer in laboratory animals, there is no evidence that it causes cancer in people. Also called simian virus 40.

sweet elm
The inner bark of this plant has been used in some cultures to treat certain medical problems. It may have antioxidant effects. Also called slippery elm, gray elm, Indian elm, red elm, Ulmus fulva, and Ulmus rubra.

SWS
Sturge-Weber syndrome. A rare, congenital disorder that affects the brain, skin, and eyes. Abnormal blood vessel growth occurs in the trigeminal nerve in the face and the meninges (covering) of the brain. This abnormal growth causes red or purple skin discoloration (sometimes called a port wine stain), usually on one side of the face, and can also cause seizures, learning disabilities, and glaucoma. Also called Sturge-Weber syndrome.

sympathetic nervous system (SIM-puh-THEH-tik NER-vus SISS-tum)
The part of the nervous system that increases heart rate, blood pressure, breathing rate, and pupil size. It also causes blood vessels to narrow and decreases digestive juices.

symptom
An indication that a person has a condition or disease. Some examples of symptoms are headache, fever, fatigue, nausea, vomiting, and pain.

symptom management
Care given to improve the quality of life of patients who have a serious or life-threatening disease. The goal of symptom management is to prevent or treat as early as possible the symptoms of the disease, side effects caused by treatment of the disease, and psychological, social, and spiritual problems related to the disease or its treatment. Also called palliative care, comfort care, and supportive care.

symptomatic
Having to do with symptoms, which are signs of a condition or disease.

syncytium
A large cell-like structure formed by the joining together of two or more cells. The plural is syncytia.

syndrome (SIN-drome)
A set of symptoms or conditions that occur together and suggest the presence of a certain disease or an increased chance of developing the disease.

synergistic (SIH-ner-JIS-tik)
In medicine, describes the interaction of two or more drugs when their combined effect is greater than the sum of the effects seen when each drug is given alone.

syngeneic (SIN-juh-NAY-ik)
Having to do with individuals or tissues that have identical genes. For example, identical twins and cells and tissues from them are syngeneic.

syngeneic bone marrow transplantation (SIN-jeh-NAY-ik bone MAYR-oh tranz-plan-TAY-shun)
A procedure in which a person receives bone marrow donated by his or her healthy identical twin.

syngeneic stem cell transplantation (SIN-juh-NAY-ik)
A procedure in which a patient receives blood-forming stem cells (cells from which all blood cells develop) donated by his or her healthy identical twin.

synovial membrane
A layer of connective tissue that lines the cavities of joints, tendon sheaths, and bursae (fluid-filled sacs between tendons and bones). The synovial membrane makes synovial fluid, which has a lubricating function.

synovial sarcoma
A malignant tumor that develops in the synovial membrane of the joints.

synovitis (SIH-noh-VY-tis)
Inflammation (swelling, pain, and warmth) of a synovial membrane, which is a layer of connective tissue that lines a joint, such as the hip, knee, ankle, or shoulder. Synovitis is caused by some types of arthritis and other diseases.

synthetic (sin-THEH-tik)
Having to do with substances that are man-made instead of taken from nature.

synthetic protegrin analog
A drug that may prevent oral mucositis (sores on the lining of the mouth), a side effect of some cancer treatments.

synthetic retinoid (sin-THET-ik RET-in-oyd)
A substance related to vitamin A that is produced in a laboratory.

syringe
A small hollow tube used for injecting or withdrawing liquids. It may be attached to a needle in order to withdraw fluid from the body or inject drugs into the body.

systemic (sis-TEH-mik)
Affecting the entire body.

systemic chemotherapy (sis-TEH-mik KEE-moh-THAYR-uh-pee)
Treatment with anticancer drugs that travel through the blood to cells all over the body.

systemic disease (sis-TEH-mik dih-ZEEZ)
Disease that affects the whole body.

systemic inflammatory response syndrome (sis-TEH-mik in-FLA-muh-TOR-ee reh-SPONTS SIN-drome)
SIRS. A serious condition in which there is inflammation throughout the whole body. It may be caused by a severe bacterial infection (sepsis), trauma, or pancreatitis. It is marked by fast heart rate, low blood pressure, low or high body temperature, and low or high white blood cell count. The condition may lead to multiple organ failure and shock. Also called SIRS.

systemic lupus erythematosus (sis-TEH-mik LOO-pus ER-ih-THEE-muh-TOH-sus)
SLE. A chronic, inflammatory, connective tissue disease that can affect the joints and many organs, including the skin, heart, lungs, kidneys, and nervous system. It can cause many different symptoms; however, not everyone with SLE has all of the symptoms. Also called lupus and SLE.

systemic mastocytosis (sis-TEH-mik MAS-toh-sy-TOH-sis)
A rare disease in which too many mast cells (a type of immune system cell) are found in the skin, bones, joints, lymph nodes, liver, spleen, and gastrointestinal tract. Mast cells give off chemicals such as histamine that can cause flushing (a hot, red face), itching, abdominal cramps, muscle pain, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, low blood pressure, and shock.

systemic radiation therapy (sis-TEH-mik RAY-dee-AY-shun THAYR-uh-pee)
A type of radiation therapy in which a radioactive substance, such radioactive idoine or a radioactively labeled monoclonal antibody, is swallowed or injected into the body and travels through the blood, locating and killing tumor cells.

systemic therapy (sis-TEH-mik THAYR-uh-pee)
Treatment using substances that travel through the bloodstream, reaching and affecting cells all over the body.

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cholangiocarcinoma, or bile-duct (bile duct) cancer, arises from the tissues in the bile duct.