glossary

# A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

This cancer definition glossary is adapted from the National Cancer Institute online glossary.

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10-propargyl-10-deazaaminopterin
A substance that is being studied in the treatment of cancer. It belongs to the family of drugs called folate analogs.

12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (12-oh-TEH-truh-DEK-uh-noyl-FOR-bol-13- A-suh-TAYT)
TPA. A substance being studied in the treatment of hematologic cancers. It is a type of phorbol ester. Also called TPA.

126–F
A liquid that has been promoted as a treatment for a wide range of diseases, including cancer. The ingredients thought to be in 126–F have been tested, and none of them has been shown to be effective in treating any form of cancer. 126–F is not available in the United States. Also called Protocel, Sheridan’s Formula, Jim’s Juice, Crocinic Acid, Cancell, JS–114, JS–101, and Cantron.

13-cis retinoic acid (... REH-tih-NOH-ik A-sid)
A drug that is used in the treatment of acne and psoriasis and is being studied in cancer prevention. It is a type of retinoid. Also called isotretinoin.

131I-MIBG
Iodine I 131 metaiodobenzylguanidine. A radioactive substance that is used in imaging tests, and is being studied in the treatment of cancer. It is a type of radiopharmaceutical. Also called iodine I 131 metaiodobenzylguanidine.

17-AAG
17-N-allylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin. A substance that is being studied in the treatment of cancer. It belongs to the family of drugs called antitumor antibiotics. Also called 17-N-allylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin.

17-dimethylaminoethylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin (17-dy-MEH-thul-uh-MEE-noh-EH-thul-uh-MEE-noh-17-dee-meh-THOK-see-gel-DAN-uh-MY-sin)
17-DMAG. A substance that is being studied in the treatment of cancer. It belongs to the family of drugs called geldanamycin analogs.

17-N-allylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin (17-N-A-lul-uh-MEE-noh-17-DEE-meh-THOK-sih-gel-DAN-uh-MY-sin)
17-AAG. A substance that is being studied in the treatment of cancer. It belongs to the family of drugs called antitumor antibiotics. Also called 17-AAG.

18F-EF5
A substance that is being studied in positron emission tomography (PET) imaging to detect tumor hypoxia (a low level of oxygen in the tumor).This may help predict how the tumor will respond to treatment. It belongs to the family of drugs called radiopharmaceuticals. Also called fluorine F 18 EF5.

1H-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging
A noninvasive imaging method that provides information about cellular activity (metabolic information). It is used along with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) which provides information about the shape and size of the tumor (spacial information). Also called magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging.

2-methoxyestradiol
2ME2. A drug that prevents the formation of new blood vessels that tumors need in order to grow. It is derived from estrogen and belongs to the family of drugs called angiogenesis inhibitors.

2IT-BAD monoclonal antibody 170 (… MAH-noh-KLOH-nul AN-tih-BAH-dee …)
A substance being studied in the treatment of cancer. It is made by linking the monoclonal antibody 170 to 2IT-BAD. Monoclonal antibody 170 is made in the laboratory and can locate and bind to the protein MUC-1, which is found on some types of cancer cells. 2IT-BAD binds to radioisotopes (unstable forms of metallic elements that release radiation as they become more stable). The released radiation can make an image of the tumor on a scanner. It may also kill cancer cells. 2IT-BAD monoclonal antibody 170 is a type of immunoconjugate.

3-aminopyridine-2-carboxaldehyde thiosemicarbazone
3-AP. A substance being studied in the treatment of cancer. It is a type of ribonucleotide reductase inhibitor. Also called 3-AP and Triapine.

3-AP
3-aminopyridine-2-carboxaldehyde thiosemicarbazone. A substance being studied in the treatment of cancer. It is a type of ribonucleotide reductase inhibitor. Also called 3-aminopyridine-2-carboxaldehyde thiosemicarbazone and Triapine.

3-D
3-dimensional. A graphic display of depth, width, and height. Also called 3-dimensional.

3-dimensional
3-D. A graphic display of depth, width, and height. Also called 3-D.

3-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3-dih-MEN-shuh-nul kun-FOR-mul RAY-dee-AY-shun THAYR-uh-pee)
A procedure that uses a computer to create a 3-dimensional picture of the tumor. This allows doctors to give the highest possible dose of radiation to the tumor, while sparing the normal tissue as much as possible. Also called 3-dimensional radiation therapy.

3-dimensional radiation therapy (3-dih-MEN-shuh-nul RAY-dee-AY-shun THAYR-uh-pee)
A procedure that uses a computer to create a 3-dimensional picture of the tumor. This allows doctors to give the highest possible dose of radiation to the tumor, while sparing the normal tissue as much as possible. Also called 3-dimensional conformal radiation therapy.

3F8
A type of monoclonal antibody used in cancer detection or therapy. Monoclonal antibodies are laboratory-produced substances that can locate and bind to cancer cells.

4-demethoxydaunorubicin (... DEE-meh-THOK-see-DAW-noh-ROO-bih-sin)
A drug used in the treatment of cancer. It is a type of antitumor antibiotic. Also called idarubicin.

4-hydroxytamoxifen
A form of the drug tamoxifen that is made by the body after taking tamoxifen. It can also be made in the laboratory, and may help decrease breast density. A topical form of 4-hydroxytamoxifen is being studied in breast cancer screening.

4-nitroquinoline 1-oxide
4-NQO. A substance that is used in cancer research to cause tumors in laboratory animals. This is done to test new diets, drugs, and procedures for use in cancer prevention and treatment. Also called 4-NQO.

4-NQO
4-nitroquinoline 1-oxide. A substance that is used in cancer research to cause tumors in laboratory animals. This is done to test new diets, drugs, and procedures for use in cancer prevention and treatment. Also called 4-nitroquinoline 1-oxide.

5-fluoro-2-deoxycytidine (5-FLOOR-oh-2-dee-OK-see-SY-tih-deen)
A substance being studied in the treatment of some types of cancer. It may prevent the growth of tumors by stopping cancer cells from dividing and by killing them. It is a type of antimetabolite. Also called FdCyd.

5-FU
A drug used in the treatment of cancer. It is a type of antimetabolite. Also called fluorouracil.

5-HT3 receptor antagonist (…rih-SEP-ter an-TAG-uh-nist )
5-hydroxytryptamine 3 receptor antagonist. A type of drug used to treat certain types of irritable bowel syndrome and relieve nausea and vomiting. It is a type of antiemetic. Also called type 3 serotonin receptor antagonist and 5-hydroxytryptamine 3 receptor antagonist.

5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (,,, hy-DROK-see-IN-dole-uh-SEE-tik A-sid)
5HIAA. A breakdown product of serotonin that is excreted in the urine. Serotonin is a hormone found at high levels in many body tissues. Serotonin and 5HIAA are produced in excess amounts by carcinoid tumors, and levels of these substances may be measured in the urine to test for carcinoid tumors.

5-hydroxytryptamine
A hormone found in the brain, platelets, digestive tract, and pineal gland. It acts both as a neurotransmitter (a substance that nerves use to send messages to one another) and a vasoconstrictor (a substance that causes blood vessels to narrow). A lack of 5-hydroxytryptamine in the brain is thought to be a cause of depression. Also called serotonin.

5-hydroxytryptamine 3 receptor antagonist (hy-DROK-see-TRIP-tuh-meen rih-SEP-ter an-TAG-uh-nist)
5-HT3 receptor antagonist. A type of drug used to treat certain types of irritable bowel syndrome and relieve nausea and vomiting. It is a type of antiemetic. Also called type 3 serotonin receptor antagonist and 5-HT3 receptor antagonist.

506U78
A drug used to treat certain types of T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) and T-cell lymphoblastic lymphoma (T-LBL). It belongs to the family of drugs called antimetabolites. Also called nelarabine and Arranon.

5Q minus syndrome (...MY-nus SIN-drome)
5Q- syndrome. A rare disorder caused by loss of part of the long arm (Q arm) of human chromosome 5. This syndrome affects myeloid (bone marrow) cells, causing treatment-resistant anemia, and myelodysplastic syndromes that may lead to acute myelogenous leukemia. Also called 5Q- syndrome.

5Q- syndrome (...SIN-drome)
5Q minus syndrome. A rare disorder caused by loss of part of the long arm (Q arm) of human chromosome 5. This syndrome affects myeloid (bone marrow) cells, causing treatment-resistant anemia, and myelodysplastic syndromes that may lead to acute myelogenous leukemia. Also called 5Q minus syndrome.

6-hydroxymethylacylfulvene (6-hy-DROK-see-MEH-thul-AY-sel-FUL-veen)
A substance being studied in the treatment of some types of cancer. 6-hydroxymethylacylfulvene interferes with a cell's DNA and may block cancer cell growth. It is a type of alkylating agent. Also called irofulven.

852A
A substance being studied in the treatment of certain adult and childhood blood cancers and other types of cancer. 852A may help the patient's immune system block tumor growth. It is a type of immune system modulator.

9-cis retinoic acid (... REH-tih-NOH-ik A-sid)
A substance being studied in the prevention of cancer. It is a type of retinoid.

90Y-DOTA-biotin
A compound that contains the radioisotope yttrium Y 90 linked to the chemical biotin. Biotin is a molecule that binds strongly to the chemical streptavidin. 90Y-DOTA-biotin will find tumor cells in the body that have been targeted by an antibody linked to streptavidin and kill them. It is being studied together with CC49-streptavidin in the treatment of cancer. Also called yttrium Y 90 DOTA-biotin.

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cholangiocarcinoma, or bile-duct (bile duct) cancer, arises from the tissues in the bile duct.