Is bad luck the leading cause of cancer? … ancer.aspx

This piece from the NHS in the UK is in response to some newspaper reports that came out on a back of a study that is linked to in the above link.


Dichotomy in intrahepatic cholangiocarcinomas based on histologic similarities to hilar cholangiocarcinomas.

Intraductal neoplasms of the bile duct - A new challenge to biliary tract tumor pathology.


(4 replies, posted in General Discussion)

Glad to be of help Ben. Take a look at the nutrition board as well for posts on ginger as I think there are some there from memory. And please let us know as well how this goes for your mum.

Best wishes,


Prospective phase II trial of everolimus in PIK3CA amplification/mutation and/or PTEN loss patients with advanced solid tumors refractory to standard therapy.

The study did not meet its primary objective of demonstrating the anti-tumor activity of everolimus in PIK3CA amplification/mutation and/or PTEN loss patients with advanced solid tumors refractory to standard therapy. Further investigation using other genomic candidates and new-generation mTOR inhibitors is warranted in patients with treatment-refractory cancer.

Serum liver enzymes serve as prognostic factors in patients with intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma.


(4 replies, posted in General Discussion)

Hi Ben,

Sorry to hear this news about your mum and the nausea, not so good. I found a few sites that hopefully will be of use to you on this issue. Plus we have the nutrition board here on the site that should be of help as well. Here are the links - … ncer-drugs … -sick.html … erapy.aspx … e_effects/

The top 2 links are from the UK and contain loads of great info from highly respetced organisations here in the UK Ben. Hope some of that is of help and please let us know how things go for your mum.

My best to you both,


Not Yet Open.

Percutaneous Hepatic Perfusion vs. Cisplatin/Gemcitabine in Patients With Intrahepatic Cholangiocarcinoma

This study will evaluate two groups of patients who have intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma. Each group will receive induction treatment with Cisplatin and Gemcitabine per SOC for 4 treatment cycles. Following induction treatment patients will be randomize (1:1), to 2 arms of treatment. One group (50%) will be receive high dose chemotherapy delivered specifically to the liver, while the other group (50%) will continue treatment with Cisplatin and Gemcitabine. Patient in each group will get repeating cycles of treatment until the cancer advances. All patients will be followed until death. This study will compare the overall survival (OS) in patients with intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma.

Condition    Intervention    Phase
Bile Duct Cancer
Intrahepatic Cholangiocarcinoma
Combination Product: Melphalan/HDS
Drug: Cisplatin and Gemcitabine
Phase 2
Phase 3

Study Type:    Interventional
Study Design:    Allocation: Randomized
Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment
Masking: No masking
Primary Purpose: Treatment
Official Title:    Randomized, Controlled Study to Compare the Efficacy, Safety and Pharmacokinetics of Melphalan/HDS Treatment Given Sequentially Following Cisplatin/Gemcitabine Versus Cisplatin/Gemcitabine in Patients With IntraHepatic Cholangiocarcinoma

Resource links provided by NLM:

Genetics Home Reference related topics: cholangiocarcinoma
Drug Information available for: Melphalan Melphalan hydrochloride Cisplatin Gemcitabine Gemcitabine hydrochloride
Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center resources: Intrahepatic Cholangiocarcinoma Bile Duct Cancer
U.S. FDA Resources

Further study details as provided by Delcath Systems Inc.:

Primary Outcome Measures:
Overall Survival [ Time Frame: Change in survival is being assessed through study completion, an average of 2 years ]
Patients will be followed until death

Secondary Outcome Measures:
Progression-free survival, as determined by IRC [ Time Frame: Change in PFS change will be assessed every 9 weeks through study completion, an average of 1 year ]
Period of time from 1st treatment to tumor progression or death

Objective response rate (CR + PR) as determined by the Investigator [ Time Frame: ORR change will be assessed every 9 weeks through study completion, an average of 1 year ]
The number of patients with either a complete or partial response as determined by the investigator

Other Outcome Measures:
Progression-free survival, as determined by the Investigator [ Time Frame: PFS change will be assessed every 9 weeks through study completion, an average of 1 year ]
Period of time from 1st treatment to tumor progression

Objective response rate as determined by IRC [ Time Frame: ORR change will assessed every 9 weeks through study completion, an average of one year ]
The number of patients with either a complete or partial response as determined by the IRC

Quality of Life (QOL) as measured by the functional health survey EQ-5D module [ Time Frame: QOL change will be evaluated every 6 weeks through study completion, an average of 1 year ]
QoL will be evaluated for all patients treated in the study

Pharmacokinetic Outcome Measures: Cmax [ Time Frame: PK is assessed at each Melphalan/HDS cycle approximately every 6 weeks for an average of one year ]
Observed maximum concentration (Cmax)

Pharmacokinetic Outcome Measures: AUC [ Time Frame: PK is assessed at each Melphalan/HDS cycle approximately every 6 weeks for an average of one year ]
Area under the curve (AUC)

Pharmacokinetic Outcome Measures: Tmax [ Time Frame: PK is assessed at each Melphalan/HDS cycle approximately every 6 weeks for an average of one year ]
Time of maximum concentration (Tmax)

Pharmacokinetic Outcome Measures: CL [ Time Frame: PK is assessed at each Melphalan/HDS cycle approximately every 6 weeks for an average of one year ]
Total system clearance (CL)

Incidence of Treatment-Emergent Adverse Events (Safety) [ Time Frame: Adverse events are assessed from time of informed consent through the study completion, average about 1 year ]
Number of patients experiencing treatment related adverse events as assessed by CTCAE version 4.0

Estimated Enrollment:    295
Anticipated Study Start Date:    September 2017
Estimated Study Completion Date:    May 2023
Estimated Primary Completion Date:    January 2023 (Final data collection date for primary outcome measure)
Arms    Assigned Interventions
Experimental: Melphalan/PHP
Patients may receive up to 6 treatments of Melphalan/HDS 3.0 mg/kg IBW. Each treatment cycle consists of 6 weeks with an acceptable delay for an additional 2 weeks (i.e. 8 weeks in total). The maximum dose of melphalan will be 220 mg per treatment.
Combination Product: Melphalan/HDS
Melphalan/HDS treatment for up to six cycles, followed by a re-induction of CisGem.
Other Name: Melphalan/PHP
Active Comparator: Cisplatin and Gemcitabine
Each Cis/Gem treatment cycle will comprise cisplatin, dosed at 25 mg per square meter of body surface area, and gemcitabine, dosed at 1000 mg per square meter of body surface area. Each will be administered on Days 1 and 8 every 3 weeks.
Drug: Cisplatin and Gemcitabine
continuous treatment with Cis/Gem until disease progression
Other Name: Cis/Gem

Detailed Description:
The study will consist of 4 phases: a screening, an induction, randomization and follow-up phase.

Screening phase: Screening assessments will be conducted within 28 days prior to initiation of Induction Phase treatment to determine each patient's overall eligibility. These assessments will include medical history; physical examination; Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status (PS); 12 lead electrocardiogram (ECG); echocardiogram (ECHO); vital signs; laboratory assessments; radiologic assessments of disease status; and an evaluation of the vasculature compatibility for Percutaneous Hepatic Perfusion (PHP).

Induction phase: The initial 12 weeks of the study, all patients will receive 4 cycles of cisplatin/gemcitabine. Each cycle will be comprised of cisplatin dosed at 25 mg per square meter of body-surface area (BSA), followed by gemcitabine dosed at 1000 mg per square meter of BSA; dosing will occur on Days 1 and 8 of each cycle. At the completion of 3 cycles (week 8 (+1 week)) of cisplatin/gemcitabine, an imaging scan is performed as per standard of care to determine if the patient has progressed on treatment or should continue receiving the cisplatin/gemcitabine induction therapy for one more cycle (4th cycle - prior to randomization). At the completion of 4 cycles (week 12 (+1 week)) of cisplatin/gemcitabine, patients will undergo whole-body imaging to determine the status of their disease. Patients with progressive disease (PD) will be discontinued from study treatment, and will receive further treatment to be determined by the principal investigator (PI). They will continue to be followed until death or the end of the study. Patients who have at least stable disease (SD) at imaging after induction phase of 4 cycles of cisplatin/gemcitabine (week 12 (+ 1 week)) will go on to the next phase of the study (Randomized Treatment Phase).

Randomization phase: Patients who have at least stable disease via imaging at the end of the Induction Phase will be randomized in a 1:1 ratio to Melphalan/HDS treatment or to continue cisplatin/gemcitabine in cycles previously described in the Induction Phase, until progressive disease (PD) or unacceptable toxicity is observed. Patients who were randomized to treatment with Melphalan/HDS (dosed at 3.0 mg/kg Ideal Body Weight [IBW]) must undergo their first treatment within 14 days following the whole body imaging performed at end of the Induction Phase. For Melphalan/HDS treatment, patients will receive up to 6 treatments. Each treatment cycle will consist of 6 weeks with an acceptable delay for up to another 2 weeks before the next planned treatment to allow for additional recovery, if needed. After the Melphalan/HDS treatment, in the absence of disease progression, the patient should undergo a re-induction of CisGem. Tumor response will be assessed in both treatment arms every 8 weeks (+ 1 week) until PD.

The assessment scans will be reviewed by Independent Review Committee (IRC). At any time when PD is observed, the patient will be removed from further study treatment; any further treatment will be at the discretion of the investigator. Melphalan/HDS treatment will also be discontinued in the event that recovery requires more than 8 weeks from last treatment. An end-of-treatment visit will be conducted approximately 6 to 8 weeks following the final dose of study treatment. Ongoing adverse events (AEs) at the end-of-treatment visit will be followed until the severity returns to common terminology criteria for adverse events (CTCAE) Grade < 1.

Follow-up phase: In the event that disease has not progressed at the end-of-treatment visit, disease assessment scans will continue every 8 weeks (+ 1 week) until PD is documented. Patients will be contacted by phone every 6 months for survival status for the first two years following the completion of study treatment, then yearly thereafter until death, withdrawal of informed consent or they become lost to follow-up, whichever occurs first. Patients will be monitored for two years following the completion of study treatment for the development of myelodysplasia and secondary leukemia.


Ages Eligible for Study:      18 Years and older   (Adult, Senior)
Sexes Eligible for Study:      All
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:      No
Inclusion Criteria:

Are willing and able to provide signed informed consent.
Intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma diagnosed by histology.
Unresectable ICC, with less than 50% of the liver involved, and without clinically significant extra-hepatic disease (regional lymph node lesions [≤ 2 cm] are acceptable) based on CT
Scans used to determine eligibility (CT scan of the chest/abdomen/pelvis and liver) must be performed within 28 days prior to initiation of Induction Phase treatment.
At least one target lesion based on the evaluation criteria in solid tumors (RECIST 1.1).
Patients must have an ECOG PS of 0-1 at screening.
Male or female patients aged ≥ 18 years.
Patients must weigh ≥ 35 kg (due to possible size limitations with respect to percutaneous catheterization of the femoral artery and vein using the Delcath Hepatic Delivery System).
Exclusion Criteria:

Greater than 50% tumor burden in the liver by imaging.
History of orthotopic liver transplantation, hepatic vasculature incompatible with perfusion, hepatofugal flow in the portal vein or known unresolved venous shunting. Prior Whipple procedure is permitted provided the anatomy is still compatible for perfusion with the Melphalan/HDS system.
History of, or known, hypersensitivity to any components of melphalan or the components of the Melphalan/HDS system.
History of, or known, hypersensitivity to gemcitabine or platinum-containing compounds.
Known hypersensitivity to heparin or the presence of heparin-induced thrombocytopenia.
Prior treatment with gemcitabine or platinum-containing compounds, including in the adjuvant setting.
Received an investigational agent for any indication within 30 days prior to first treatment.
Prior radiation therapy to the liver including 90Y , I131 based loco regional therapy. Prior loco regional therapy, including resection, based on other technology for ICC, if any, must have been completed at least 4 weeks prior to baseline imaging.
Not recovered from side effects of prior therapy to ≤ Grade 1 (according to National Cancer Institute [NCI] CTCAE version 4.03). Certain side effects that are unlikely to develop into serious or life-threatening events (e.g. alopecia) are allowed at > Grade 1.
Those with New York Heart Association functional classification II, III or IV; active cardiac conditions including unstable coronary syndromes (unstable or severe angina, recent myocardial infarction), worsening or new-onset congestive heart failure, significant arrhythmias and severe valvular disease must be evaluated for risks of undergoing general anesthesia.
History or evidence of clinically significant pulmonary disease that precludes the use of general anesthesia.
Any evidence of severe or uncontrolled systemic diseases which, in the view of the investigator, makes it undesirable for the patient to participate in the trial (e.g. unstable or uncompensated respiratory, cardiac, hepatic or renal disease).
Patients with active bacterial infections with systemic manifestations (malaise, fever, leukocytosis) are not eligible until completion of appropriate therapy. Patients taking low-dose antibiotics for biliary obstruction are exempted from this exclusion criterion.
History of prior malignancy that will interfere with the response evaluation (exceptions include in-situ carcinoma of the cervix treated by cone-biopsy/resection, non-metastatic basal and/or squamous cell carcinomas of the skin, any early stage (stage I) malignancy adequately resected for cure greater than 5 years previously).
Acute or active hepatitis B or hepatitis C infection. Patients with anti-hepatitis B core antigen (HBc) positive, or hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) but viral deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) negative are exception(s).
History of bleeding disorders which would put a patient at risk for bleeding with anti-coagulation or patients with an increased risk of thromboembolic or hemorrhagic events (e.g., stroke).
Brain lesions or intracranial abnormalities at risk for bleeding, by history or radiologic imaging (e.g., active metastases).
Known varices at risk of bleeding, including medium or large esophageal or gastric varices, or active peptic ulcer.
Inadequate hematologic function as evidenced by any of the following:
Platelets < 100,000/µL
Hemoglobin < 10.0 g/dL, independent of transfusion or growth factor support
White blood cell count (WBC) < 2,000/µL
Neutrophils < 1,500 cells/µL.
Serum creatinine > 1.5 mg/dL. If serum creatinine > 1.5 mg/dL, the measured creatinine clearance must be measured and patient is eligible if creatinine clearance > 45 mL/min.
Inadequate liver function as evidenced by any of the following:
Total serum bilirubin > 1.5 times ULN
Aspartate aminotransferase (AST) > 5 times the upper limit of normal (ULN) or alanine aminotransferase (ALT) > 5 times ULN
Serum albumin < 2.9 g/dL.
Known alcohol or drug abuse that would preclude compliance with study procedures.
For female patients of childbearing potential (defined as having had a menstrual period within the past 12 months): a positive serum pregnancy test (β-human chorionic gonadotropin [β HCG]) within 7 days prior to enrollment; or unwilling or unable to undergo hormonal suppression to avoid menstruation during treatment; or if breastfeeding, unwilling or unable to stop breastfeeding while on study treatment.
Sexually active females of childbearing potential and sexually active males with partners of reproductive potential: unwilling or unable to use appropriate contraception from screening until at least 6 months after last administration of study treatment.
Patients taking immunosuppressive drugs or who are unable to be temporarily removed from chronic anti-coagulation therapy.
Patients with biliary stents.
Patients with a history of external percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography catheter placement.
Patients previously treated with any intra-arterial regional hepatic therapy such as trans-arterial chemoembolization.
Patients with severe allergic reactions to iodine contrast which cannot be controlled by premedication with antihistamines and steroids.
Patients with a latex allergy
   Contacts and Locations
Choosing to participate in a study is an important personal decision. Talk with your doctor and family members or friends about deciding to join a study. To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the Contacts provided below. For general information, see Learn About Clinical Studies.

Please refer to this study by its identifier: NCT03086993

Contact: LESLIE CALLAHAN, BSN, MS    212-489-2100 ext 247    LCALLAHAN@DELCATH.COM   

Sponsors and Collaborators
Delcath Systems Inc.
  More Information

Responsible Party:    Delcath Systems Inc. Identifier:    NCT03086993     History of Changes
Other Study ID Numbers:    PHP-ICC-203
Study First Received:    March 13, 2017
Last Updated:    March 21, 2017
Individual Participant Data    
Plan to Share IPD:    No

Studies a U.S. FDA-regulated Drug Product:    Yes
Studies a U.S. FDA-regulated Device Product:    No
Additional relevant MeSH terms:
Bile Duct Neoplasms
Neoplasms, Glandular and Epithelial
Neoplasms by Histologic Type
Biliary Tract Neoplasms
Digestive System Neoplasms
Neoplasms by Site
Bile Duct Diseases
Biliary Tract Diseases
Digestive System Diseases
Antineoplastic Agents
Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic
Molecular Mechanisms of Pharmacological Action
Antiviral Agents
Anti-Infective Agents
Enzyme Inhibitors
Immunosuppressive Agents
Immunologic Factors
Physiological Effects of Drugs
Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating
Alkylating Agents
Myeloablative Agonists processed this record on March 23, 2017

Preoperative Radiologic Evaluation of Cholangiocarcinoma.

Efficacy and safety of limited endoscopic sphincterotomy before self-expandable metal stent insertion for malignant biliary obstruction.

Role of the Notch signaling in cholangiocarcinoma.


(112 replies, posted in Introductions!)

Not much that I can add either Tiah but keeping everything crossed for your mum and this. Please let us know how things go. Loads of positive thoughts heading your way.

My best to you and your mum,


Great stuff! Thanks for that Marion. Good to see everyone's faces in the pics and video as always. Looked like the conference went well once again.




(7 replies, posted in Members' Cafe)

Hi Scott,

Great to see you again. Cold over here as well but not snowing thankfully.

Hope that Spring springs for everyone soon!


Good luck with your meeting on Thursday with the surgeon. I will keep everything crossed for you!!

Let us know how things go.

My best to you,


I did write a longish post in reply to this and about some of my experiences in my 11 years and counting of being a carer but it turned into a bit of a rant so I deleted it. It was also quite depressing, lengthy and a bit angry as well but maybe one day I will write a full post or something on it.

I agree with much of what was in your link marion but some of the stuff in it was alien to me. Like the bits about carers getting support to help address their needs etc.  A carer review sort of thing has never happened to me in all of these years. Must be different in the US I think.

Hugs to all,


PS - Lourdes, get back on yer soap box!!! If you get a bigger box then I'll join you on it as well!!

Intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma: current management and emerging therapies.

The effect of adjuvant chemotherapy in patients with intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma: a matched pair analysis.

Nicotine Promotes Cholangiocarcinoma Growth in Xenograft Mice.

Diet and biliary tract cancer risk in Shanghai, China … ne.0173935


(1 replies, posted in Websites)

Thanks for that Marion, very useful.

Yep, let's keep our fingers and everything else crossed Lainy for good things coming our way and lots of progress!!

Autophagy inhibitor chloroquine increases sensitivity to cisplatin in QBC939 cholangiocarcinoma cells by mitochondrial ROS.

Preoperative Cholangitis Affects Survival Outcome in Patients with Extrahepatic Bile Duct Cancer.

Development and Validation of a Prognostic Score for Intrahepatic Cholangiocarcinoma.